References

Auster, P.J. and R.W. Langton. 1999. The effects of fishing on habitat. American Fisheries Society Symposium 22:150-187.


Bisbal, G. 2002. The best available science for the management of anadromous salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 59:1952-1959.


Dayton, P. 1998. Reversal of the burden of proof in fisheries management. Science 279:821-822.


Eagle, J. and B.H. Thompson, Jr. 2003. Answering Lord Perry’s question: Dissecting regulatory overfishing. Ocean and Coastal Management 46:649-679.


Food and Agriculture Organization. 1995. Precautionary Approach to Capture Fisheries. Part 1: Guidelines on the Precautionary Approach to Capture Fisheries and Species Introductions. Elaborated by the Technical Consultation on the Precautionary Approach to Capture Fisheries (Including Species Introductions). Lysekil, Sweden, June 6-13.

Francis, R.I.C.C. and R. Shotton. 1997. “Risk” in fisheries management: A review. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54:1699-1715.


Greer, L. and R. Steinzor. 2002. Bad science. Environmental Forum 28:28-43.

Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council. 2002. Secretarial Amendment 1 to the Reef Fishery Management Plan to Set a 10-Year Rebuilding Plan for Red Grouper, with Associated Impacts on Gag and Other Groupers and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Final Draft. Tampa, FL.

Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council. 2003. Wayne E. Shingle, Executive Director Response to the National Research Council Question-naire. Tampa, FL.


Hanna, S. 2002. The economics of fishery management: Behavioral incentives and management costs. In Managing Marine Fisheries in the United States: Proceedings of the Pew Oceans Commission Workshop on Marine Fishery Management. Pew Oceans Commission, Arlington, VA.

Harremoës, P., D. Gee, M. MacGarvin, A. Stirling, J. Keys, B. Wynne, and S. Guedes Vaz (eds.). 2002. The precautionary principle in the 20th century: Late lessons from early warnings. In Earthscan. Earthscan Publications Ltd., London.



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Improving the use of the “Best Scientific Information Available” Standard in Fisheries Management References Auster, P.J. and R.W. Langton. 1999. The effects of fishing on habitat. American Fisheries Society Symposium 22:150-187. Bisbal, G. 2002. The best available science for the management of anadromous salmonids in the Columbia River basin. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 59:1952-1959. Dayton, P. 1998. Reversal of the burden of proof in fisheries management. Science 279:821-822. Eagle, J. and B.H. Thompson, Jr. 2003. Answering Lord Perry’s question: Dissecting regulatory overfishing. Ocean and Coastal Management 46:649-679. Food and Agriculture Organization. 1995. Precautionary Approach to Capture Fisheries. Part 1: Guidelines on the Precautionary Approach to Capture Fisheries and Species Introductions. Elaborated by the Technical Consultation on the Precautionary Approach to Capture Fisheries (Including Species Introductions). Lysekil, Sweden, June 6-13. Francis, R.I.C.C. and R. Shotton. 1997. “Risk” in fisheries management: A review. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 54:1699-1715. Greer, L. and R. Steinzor. 2002. Bad science. Environmental Forum 28:28-43. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council. 2002. Secretarial Amendment 1 to the Reef Fishery Management Plan to Set a 10-Year Rebuilding Plan for Red Grouper, with Associated Impacts on Gag and Other Groupers and Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement. Final Draft. Tampa, FL. Gulf of Mexico Fishery Management Council. 2003. Wayne E. Shingle, Executive Director Response to the National Research Council Question-naire. Tampa, FL. Hanna, S. 2002. The economics of fishery management: Behavioral incentives and management costs. In Managing Marine Fisheries in the United States: Proceedings of the Pew Oceans Commission Workshop on Marine Fishery Management. Pew Oceans Commission, Arlington, VA. Harremoës, P., D. Gee, M. MacGarvin, A. Stirling, J. Keys, B. Wynne, and S. Guedes Vaz (eds.). 2002. The precautionary principle in the 20th century: Late lessons from early warnings. In Earthscan. Earthscan Publications Ltd., London.

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Improving the use of the “Best Scientific Information Available” Standard in Fisheries Management Houck, O. 2003. Tales from a troubled marriage: Science and law in environmental policy. Science 302:1926-1929. Industry Canada. 2001. A Framework for Science and Technology Advice: Principles and Guidelines for the Effective Use of Science and Advice in Government Decision Making. Government of Canada, Ottawa. Meffe, G.K., P.D. Boersma, D.D. Murphy, B.R. Noon, H.R. Pulliam, M.E. Soulé, and D.M. Waller. 1998. Independent scientific review in natural resource management. Conservation Biology 12:268-270. Miller, M. 1987. Regional fishery management councils and the display of scientific authority. Coastal Management 15:309-318. Miller, M. 2002. Utilization of social science in federal management of U.S. marine fisheries: Strong commitment to research will improve management outcomes. In Managing Marine Fisheries in the United States: Proceedings of the Pew Oceans Commission Workshop on Marine Fishery Management. Pew Oceans Commission, Arlington, VA. National Academy of Public Administration. 2002. Courts, Congress and Constituencies: Managing Fisheries by Default. [Online]. Available: http://www.napawash.org/Pubs/NMFS_July_2002.pdf?OpenDocument [2003, October 21]. National Marine Fisheries Service. 1999. National Marine Fisheries Service: Ecosystem-Based Fishery Management. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-33. National Marine Fisheries Service. 2001. Marine Fisheries Stock Assessment Improvement Plan. Report of the National Marine Fisheries Service National Task Force for Improving Fish Stock Assessments. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-56. National Marine Fisheries Service. 2003. Taking and importing of marine mammals; Decision Regarding the impact of purse seine fishing on depleted dolphin stocks.” Federal Register 68(10):2010-2017. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 1998. Magnuson-Stevens Act provisions; National standard guidelines; Final rule.” Federal Register 63(84):24221-24237. National Research Council. 1998. Improving Fish Stock Assessments. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council. 2002a. Science and Its Role in the National Marine Fisheries Service. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council. 2002b. Scientific Evaluation of Biological Opinions on Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin: Interim Report. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C. National Research Council. 2003. Cooperative Research in the National Marine Fisheries Service. National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

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Improving the use of the “Best Scientific Information Available” Standard in Fisheries Management NOAA Fisheries. 2004. 2003 Report to Congress on Apportionment of Membership on the Regional Fisheries Management Councils. Prepared by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service. Patterson, K., R. Cook, C. Darby, S. Gavaris, L. Kell, P. Lewy, B. Mesnil, A. Punt, V. Restrepo, D.W. Skagen, and G. Stefansson. 2001. Estimating uncertainty in fish stock assessment and forecasting. Fish and Fisheries 2:125-157. Popper, K.R. 1989. Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge,5th ed. Routledge, New York, NY. Rice, J.C. 2003. Canada/DFO—Science peer review and advisory processes. Presentation at the Workshop on Defining Best Available Science for Fisheries Management of the National Research Council, Washington, D.C., September. Rice, J.C. and L. J. Richards. 1996. A framework for reducing implementation uncertainty in fisheries management. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 16:488-494. Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. 2003. Center for Independent Experts. [Online]. Available: http://www.rsmas.miami.edu/groups/cie [2004, February 18]. Turnpenny, A.W.H., K.P. Thatcher, and J.R. Nedwell. 1994. The Effects on Fish and Other Marine Animals of High-Level Underwater Sound. Report prepared for United Kingdom Defense Research Agency. U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. 2004. Preliminary Report of the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy: Governors’ Draft. Washington, D.C. Western Pacific Fishery Management Council. 2003. Kitty M. Simonds, Executive Director Response to the National Research Council Questionnaire. Honolulu, HI. Wilson, D.C. and P. Degnbol. 2002. The effects of legal mandates on fisheries science deliberations: The case of Atlantic bluefish in the United States. Fisheries Research 58(1):1-14.

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