level of accurate assessment of system lethality, collateral damage, and mission planning is greatly hindered if not impossible.

Interoperability is one of the "Grand Challenges" of the DoD acquisition requirements. With ever increasingly sophisticated programs and complex platforms deployed within a mission scenario, use of models and simulations offers one of the few avenues, barring full theater testing and evaluation, to assess program interoperability and performance. Interoperability will continue to increase in importance as connectivity is extended beyond system-of-systems considerations. For example, since September 11, 2001, evolving DoD requirements embrace fully functional interoperability with civilian police and indigenous military personnel as demonstrated in the war in Iraq.

Recommendation 7. Defense Acquisition Processes: The Department of Defense should define best practices for government ownership rights to models, simulations, and data developed during system acquisitions.

Formal guidelines and best practices for transferring models, simulations, and data between the government and its contractors are essential for competitive procurement. Instituting common model access, common model databases, and common document controls will ensure that information generated under government funding is available to multiple program managers.

Incentives for program managers to develop integrated design and manufacturing tools can make simulation-based acquisition become a reality for DoD programs. Well-defined metrics for integration of design and manufacturing can help the program managers use simulation-based acquisition. Metrics that are compatible with different acquisition programs will allow these investments to be leveraged in the future. Also, specifying the modeling and simulation techniques that will be used in the proposal evaluation process, especially the cost structure analysis and affordability models, will facilitate simulation-based acquisition. Integrating the concept-of-operations definition into the modeling and simulation program plans can bring end users into the acquisition process and thus foster a more successful transition to military capability.

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