RETOOLING MANUFACTURING

BRIDGING DESIGN, MATERIALS, AND PRODUCTION

Committee on Bridging Design and Manufacturing

Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design

National Materials Advisory Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu



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Retooling Manufacturing: Bridging Design, Materials, and Production RETOOLING MANUFACTURING BRIDGING DESIGN, MATERIALS, AND PRODUCTION Committee on Bridging Design and Manufacturing Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design National Materials Advisory Board Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Retooling Manufacturing: Bridging Design, Materials, and Production THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract DOD-4996 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09266-3 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-53341-4 (PDF) Available in limited supply from: Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 bmed@nas.edu http://www.nas.edu/bmed Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Retooling Manufacturing: Bridging Design, Materials, and Production THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Retooling Manufacturing: Bridging Design, Materials, and Production COMMITTEE ON BRIDGING DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING R. BYRON PIPES, University of Akron, Ohio, Chair REZA ABBASCHIAN, University of Florida, Gainesville ERIK ANTONSSON, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena THOMAS S. BABIN, Motorola Advanced Technology Center, Schaumburg, Illinois BRUCE BOARDMAN, John Deere Technology Center, Moline, Illinois TIMOTHY J. CONSIDINE, Pennsylvania State University, University Park JONATHAN DANTZIG, University of Illinois, Urbana MARK GERSH, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Sunnyvale, California GEORGE T. (RUSTY) GRAY III, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico ELIZABETH A. HOLM, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico DAVID A. KOSHIBA, The Boeing Company, St. Louis, Missouri MORRIS H. MORGAN III, Hampton University, Virginia DANIEL E. WHITNEY, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Staff ARUL MOZHI, Study Director EMILY ANN MEYER, Research Associate LAURA TOTH, Senior Project Assistant

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Retooling Manufacturing: Bridging Design, Materials, and Production BOARD ON MANUFACTURING AND ENGINEERING DESIGN PAMELA A. DREW, The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington, Chair CAROL L.J. ADKINS, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico GREGORY AUNER, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan THOMAS W. EAGAR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ROBERT E. FONTANA, JR., Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, San Jose, California PAUL B. GERMERAAD, Intellectual Assets, Inc., Saratoga, California ROBERT M. HATHAWAY, Oshkosh Truck Corporation, Oshkosh, Wisconsin RICHARD L. KEGG, Milacron, Inc. (retired), Cincinnati, Ohio PRADEEP K. KHOSLA, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JAY LEE, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee DIANA L. LONG, Robert C. Byrd Institute for Flexible Manufacturing, South Charleston, West Virginia JAMES MATTICE, Universal Technology Corporation, Dayton, Ohio MANISH MEHTA, National Center for Manufacturing Sciences, Ann Arbor, Michigan ANGELO M. NINIVAGGI, JR., Plexus, Nampa, Idaho JAMES B. O'DWYER, PPG Industries, Allison Park, Pennsylvania HERSCHEL H. REESE, Dow Corning Corporation, Midland, Michigan H.M. REININGA, Rockwell Collins, Cedar Rapids, Iowa LAWRENCE RHOADES, Extrude Hone Corporation, Irwin, Pennsylvania JAMES B. RICE, JR., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ALFONSO VELOSA III, Gartner, Inc., Tucson, Arizona JACK WHITE, Altarum, Ann Arbor, Michigan JOEL SAMUEL YUDKEN, AFL–CIO, Washington, D.C. Staff TONI MARECHAUX, Director

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Retooling Manufacturing: Bridging Design, Materials, and Production NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD JULIA M. PHILLIPS, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico. Chair JOHN ALLISON, Ford Research Laboratories, Dearborn, Michigan PAUL BECHER, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee BARBARA D. BOYAN, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta DIANNE CHONG, The Boeing Company, St. Louis, Missouri FIONA DOYLE, University of California, Berkeley GARY FISCHMAN, Biomedical Applications of Materials Consultant, Palatine, Illinois KATHARINE G. FRASE, IBM, Hopewell Junction, New York HAMISH L. FRASER, Ohio State University, Columbus JOHN J. GASSNER, U.S. Army Natick Soldier Center, Massachusetts THOMAS S. HARTWICK, TRW (retired), Snohomish, Washington ARTHUR H. HEUER, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio ELIZABETH HOLM, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico FRANK E. KARASZ, University of Massachusetts, Amherst SHEILA F. KIA, General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, Michigan CONILEE G. KIRKPATRICK, HRL Laboratories, Malibu, California ENRIQUE J. LAVERNIA, University of California, Davis TERRY LOWE, Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico HENRY J. RACK, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina LINDA SCHADLER, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York JAMES C. SEFERIS, University of Washington, Seattle T.S. SUDARSHAN, Materials Modification, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia JULIA WEERTMAN, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois Staff TONI MARECHAUX, Director

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Retooling Manufacturing: Bridging Design, Materials, and Production Preface The Department of Defense, having identified gaps in the communication and feedback processes between design and manufacturing of materiel, requested that the National Research Council conduct a study to develop and define a coherent framework for bridging these gaps through data management, modeling, and simulation. This framework is intended to guide investment decisions in basic research to create better modes and methods of communication and collaboration between the various groups involved in bringing complex products through the design and testing process and into production. The focus of the committee's effort was complex systems composed of a large number of discrete mechanical parts. While the charge to the Committee on Bridging Design and Manufacturing was to concentrate on the research aspects of design and manufacturing, the committee recognizes that bridging the various domains involved will require substantial cultural and organizational changes as well. The committee was charged to: Develop a flow diagram to illustrate dependencies and interactions of material data and process models needed to fully characterize virtual manufacturing. This flow diagram may encompass databases and models to characterize material properties; characterize processes; describe design tools; describe simulation tools; characterize life-cycle behavior; describe how products perform in service; describe how a product interacts with its environment; and describe external constraints and objectives. Demonstrate, through case studies, generalized practice, or both, how the product design and realization cycle can be made more efficient through this simulation process. Analyze what basic research and development on processes, databases, models, sensors, controls, and other tools are most needed to implement a strategy for product realization. Identify critical roadblocks in the access to knowledge, in the availability of knowledge, in the understanding of process, in the ability to describe process, and in other areas, including gaps in knowledge, that currently limit the success of virtual prototyping and manufacturing. Describe any tools that currently exist and can be applied to the issue today. Illustrate how these models and databases might be tested for robustness and rigor. The committee (see Appendix A for members' biographies) conducted two information-gathering workshops and received presentations from the Department of Defense, the National Science Foundation, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Department of

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Retooling Manufacturing: Bridging Design, Materials, and Production Energy national laboratories, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and other academic and industrial organizations. The committee also conducted a site visit to the Detroit area to gather information on the automotive industry's best practices for closing the design-to-manufacturing gap. The committee received additional presentations at two subsequent meetings (see Appendix B). During the course of its work, the committee drew information from past National Research Council reports, including the following: Modeling and Simulation in Manufacturing and Defense Systems Acquisition: Pathways to Success (2002), Equipping Tomorrow's Military Force: Integration of Commercial and Military Manufacturing in 2010 and Beyond (2002), Design in the New Millennium: Advanced Engineering Environments (2000), Defense Manufacturing in 2010 and Beyond: Meeting the Changing Needs of National Defense (1999), and Visionary Manufacturing Challenges for 2020 (1998). The scope of this study was broad, and the committee is indebted to the meeting speakers (listed in Appendix B) who took the time to share their knowledge and insights. We also thank the meeting participants, including the DoD study sponsor, John Hopps, Deputy Director, Defense Research and Engineering /Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Laboratories and Basic Sciences),1 and the government liaisons (Lewis Sloter, Office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense—Science and Technology; Daniel Cundiff, Office of Under Secretary of Defense—Advanced Systems and Concepts; Delcie R. Durham, National Science Foundation; Kevin Jurrens, National Institute of Standards and Technology; Leo Plonsky, Office of Naval Research; Walter Roy, Army Research Laboratory; Charles Wagner, Air Force Research Laboratory; and Steven Wall, Jet Propulsion Laboratory). The committee acknowledges and appreciates input on cost analysis and life-cycle costing from Peter Sandborn, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, that helped to clarify the section "Systems Engineering Tools" in Chapter 3. The committee also greatly appreciates the support and assistance of National Research Council staff members Arul Mozhi, Emily Ann Meyer, Marta Vornbrock, and Laura Toth during its conduct of this study and development of this report. The committee notes that mention of product and company names is for purposes of illustration only and should not be construed as an endorsement by either the committee or the institution. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the history and status of the topic and explains the objectives of this report. Chapter 2 describes the framework for virtual design and manufacturing. Chapter 3 describes the tools that are part of this framework. Chapter 4 discusses the economic dimension of this framework, and Chapter 5 discusses the barriers to its implementation in DoD acquisition. Finally, Chapter 6 provides the study summary, recommendations, and research needed to implement the virtual design and manufacturing framework. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's (NRC) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. The authors wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Robert W. Bower, University of California–Davis; Darek Ceglarek, University of Wisconsin–Madison; Thomas W. Eagar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Robert E. 1   It is with deep regret and sorrow that the committee notes that John H. Hopps, Jr., passed away unexpectedly on May 14, 2004.

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Retooling Manufacturing: Bridging Design, Materials, and Production Fontana, Jr., Hitachi Global Storage Technologies; Hamish L. Fraser, Ohio State University; Allen C. Haggerty, The Boeing Company (retired); Winston Knight, University of Rhode Island; James F. Lardner, Deere & Company (retired); Prasad Mangalaramanan, Dana Corporation; Mikel D. Petty, Old Dominion University; Michael L. Philpott, University of Illinois, Urbana– Champaign; Subbiah Ramalingam, University of Minnesota; and John Sullivan, Ford Motor Company. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions and recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by George Dieter, University of Maryland. Appointed by the NRC, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The following individuals also greatly assisted the work of the committee through their participation in many of the committee's activities as liaisons to the NRC boards that initiated the study: Richard L. Kegg, Milacron, Inc. (retired), Cincinnati, Ohio, acted as liaison to the Board on Manufacturing and Engineering Design, and John Allison, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Michigan, acted as liaison to the National Materials Advisory Board. R. Byron Pipes, Chair Committee on Bridging Design and Manufacturing

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Retooling Manufacturing: Bridging Design, Materials, and Production Dedicated to the memory of John H. Hopps, Jr. (1939-2004) who epitomized the spirit of discovery in his distinguished career as a scientist, educator, and administrator. He answered the call to public service and we all benefited.

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Retooling Manufacturing: Bridging Design, Materials, and Production Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   THE NEED TO BRIDGE DESIGN, MATERIALS, AND PRODUCTION   8      History and Status,   8      Benefits,   9      Future Vision,   9 2   FRAMEWORK FOR VIRTUAL DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING   11      Processes and Tools Common to Many Industries,   12      Product Development, Manufacture, and Life-Cycle Support Activities,   16      Specific Activities in Mechanical Parts Industries,   19      Specific Activities in Electronics Parts Industries,   20      Modeling and Sensing,   21 3   TOOLS FOR VIRTUAL DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING   23      Tool Evolution and Compatibility,   23      Systems Engineering Tools,   29      Engineering Design Tools,   39      Materials Science Tools,   45      Manufacturing Tools,   57      Life-Cycle Assessment Tools,   61      Common Themes,   69 4   ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF BRIDGING DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING   70      The Cost of Bridging,   71      Identifying the Expected Benefits,   71      Impacts on Productivity Growth,   72      Strategic Issues,   72      Understanding the Role of Government,   72      Institutional Stuctures,   72

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Retooling Manufacturing: Bridging Design, Materials, and Production 5   BARRIERS TO VIRTUAL DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING IN DOD ACQUISITION   74      Need for Definition and Management of Requirements,   74      Need for Building Linkages Across All Phases of DoD Acquisition,   77 6   SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS, AND RESEARCH NEEDS   81      Systems Engineering,   82      Engineering Design,   83      Materials Science,   84      Manufacturing,   85      Life-Cycle Assessment,   86      Common Themes,   86      Leveraging Design and Manufacturing in the DoD Acquisition Process,   89     APPENDIXES         A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   93     B Meeting Agendas   97     C Current Engineering Design Tools   99     D Selected Computer-Based Tools Vendors   104     E Acronyms   109