Executive Summary

The tragic events of September 11, 2001, shattered the relative calm of the early days of the 21st century by introducing large-scale international terrorism to American soil. These attacks brought an increased sense of urgency and new meaning to the Army’s top priority of protecting the U.S. homeland.

This report reflects the deliberations of the Committee on Army Science and Technology for Homeland Defense—C4ISR and is the second in a planned series of three reports of studies requested by the Department of the Army to assist it in better preparing for its emerging responsibilities in homeland security and homeland defense.1 Building on the first National Research Council report in this

1  

The terms “homeland security” and “homeland defense” are frequently used interchangeably, but for the Army the terms have precise meanings. At the time these reports were requested of the National Research Council, the term of choice was “homeland defense”; hence the name of the committee. However, the Army now uses the more inclusive term “homeland security.” This new terminology is reflected in the title of this report and throughout these chapters. The following definitions were provided by Gregory J. Bozek, Army War Plans Division, Army Deputy Chief of Staff, G3, in a briefing to the Committee on Army Science and Technology for Homeland Defense, Warrenton, Va., May 15, 2002:

  • Homeland security: The preparation for, prevention of, deterrence of, preemption of, defense against, and response to threats and aggressions directed towards U.S. territory, sovereignty, domestic population, and infrastructure; as well as crisis management, consequence management, and other domestic civil support.

  • Homeland defense: The protection of U.S. territory, sovereignty, domestic population, and critical infrastructure against external threats and aggression.

  • Civil support: Department of Defense support to U.S. civil authorities for domestic emergencies and for designated law enforcement and other activities.



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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Executive Summary The tragic events of September 11, 2001, shattered the relative calm of the early days of the 21st century by introducing large-scale international terrorism to American soil. These attacks brought an increased sense of urgency and new meaning to the Army’s top priority of protecting the U.S. homeland. This report reflects the deliberations of the Committee on Army Science and Technology for Homeland Defense—C4ISR and is the second in a planned series of three reports of studies requested by the Department of the Army to assist it in better preparing for its emerging responsibilities in homeland security and homeland defense.1 Building on the first National Research Council report in this 1   The terms “homeland security” and “homeland defense” are frequently used interchangeably, but for the Army the terms have precise meanings. At the time these reports were requested of the National Research Council, the term of choice was “homeland defense”; hence the name of the committee. However, the Army now uses the more inclusive term “homeland security.” This new terminology is reflected in the title of this report and throughout these chapters. The following definitions were provided by Gregory J. Bozek, Army War Plans Division, Army Deputy Chief of Staff, G3, in a briefing to the Committee on Army Science and Technology for Homeland Defense, Warrenton, Va., May 15, 2002: Homeland security: The preparation for, prevention of, deterrence of, preemption of, defense against, and response to threats and aggressions directed towards U.S. territory, sovereignty, domestic population, and infrastructure; as well as crisis management, consequence management, and other domestic civil support. Homeland defense: The protection of U.S. territory, sovereignty, domestic population, and critical infrastructure against external threats and aggression. Civil support: Department of Defense support to U.S. civil authorities for domestic emergencies and for designated law enforcement and other activities.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR series, Science and Technology for Army Homeland Security (NRC, 2003), this second report emphasizes how the Army, through its efforts to field the Future Force (previously called the Objective Force), could assist the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and emergency responders in their efforts to respond to a catastrophic event. While many aspects of homeland security and homeland defense overlap, an extremely high correlation exists in the area of command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR). The committee believes that C4ISR is a high-payoff capability that offers great return on investment for the nation. The committee acknowledges that this evaluation was accomplished at a fairly high level of abstraction. It is possible that different conclusions might be drawn should a highly detailed examination be conducted. The committee’s individual findings, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in Chapters 1 through 5 and are grouped together in Chapter 6. The overarching recommendation of this study is as follows: Recommendation. The Department of the Army, in coordination with the Department of Defense, should carry out the following: Work with the senior leadership in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to put in place and to institutionalize a process for collaboration and sharing between the Army and the DHS; Assist the DHS in establishing the research, development, testing, and evaluation infrastructure (i.e., an acquisition process, systems engineering discipline, modeling and simulation technologies, and testing and evaluation facilities) to support the emergency responder community; Work with the DHS to find common areas of science and technology collaboration, starting with the Future Force technologies identified in this report. Central to this effort will be the development of a framework or architecture to enable the integration of these technologies into an effective system of systems; and Work with the DHS to establish processes for joint2 operations, including joint training and exercises, shared standards, and interoperable systems. BACKGROUND President George W. Bush declared war on global terrorism with a goal of eradicating it from the face of the Earth. In declaring that objective, the president launched the nation on a campaign with two fronts—overseas and at home. The overseas effort is spearheaded by the Department of Defense (DOD), but it 2   Joint in this application means between civilian and military.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR involves all elements of national power—military, economic, diplomatic, and moral. The paradigm for conducting the overseas “homeland defense” phase of this war is well understood. However, at home the situation is much different. As of this writing (March 2004), no coherent planning paradigm or operational model for homeland security yet exists, and although a national operational concept for emergency response is being developed, no fully approved comprehensive framework exists to pull together the efforts of federal, state, and local responders. While much has been done in homeland security, there is much more to accomplish. The foundation of a national operational framework for emergency response involves partnerships—among federal, state, and local levels of government; between the private and public sectors; and between civilian emergency responders and the military, specifically the U.S. Army. This report deals primarily with the latter partnership. Organizing for Homeland Security Responsibility for homeland security as a whole has now been assigned to the Department of Homeland Security, and civilian emergency responders find themselves leading the frontline efforts to respond to terrorism on U.S. soil. The Homeland Security Act of 2002 (Public Law [P.L.] 107-296), the public law establishing the DHS, describes the department’s mission as follows: (1) IN GENERAL.—The primary mission of the Department is to— (A) prevent terrorist attacks within the United States; (B) reduce the vulnerability of the United States to terrorism; (C) minimize the damage, and assist in the recovery, from terrorist attacks that do occur within the United States; (D) carry out all functions of entities transferred to the Department, including by acting as a focal point regarding natural and manmade crises and emergency planning; (E) ensure that the functions of the agencies and subdivisions within the Department that are not related directly to securing the homeland are not diminished or neglected except by a specific explicit Act of Congress; (F) ensure that the overall economic security of the United States is not diminished by efforts, activities, and programs aimed at securing the homeland; and (G) monitor connections between illegal drug trafficking and terrorism, coordinate efforts to sever such connections, and otherwise contribute to efforts to interdict illegal drug trafficking. (P.L. 107-296, Sec. 101) The DHS performs this mission by, among other things, Securing U.S. borders, the transportation sector, ports, and critical infrastructure;

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Synthesizing and analyzing homeland security intelligence from multiple sources; Coordinating communications with state and local governments, private industry, and the American people about threats and preparedness; Coordinating government efforts to protect the American people against bioterrorism and other weapons of mass destruction; Helping to train and equip emergency responders; and Managing federal emergency response activities. At the direction of the Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 (February 28, 2003), the DHS is developing two plans to assist the nation in preparing for a major disaster or terrorist attack: the National Response Plan (NRP) and the National Incident Management System (NIMS). The NIMS will provide an operational framework for implementing the NRP. Both plans are currently in final draft form.3 The DOD has a long history of providing Army support to civil authorities. However, since the terrorist attacks against the United States, new emphasis is being placed on this mission. This emphasis has resulted in the establishment of new offices and commands. The new Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense (ASD [HLD]) has responsibility for providing guidance and policy for the DOD to implement the desires of the Congress. The ASD (HLD) is thus a key position in the DOD’s overall effort to help eradicate terrorism. The operational arm of the DOD’s efforts to combat terrorism in the homeland is the U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM), established October 1, 2002. NORTHCOM’s mission is homeland security and civil support, specifically: Conduct operations to deter, prevent, and defeat threats and aggression aimed at the United States, its territories, and interests within the assigned area of responsibility; and As directed by the President or Secretary of Defense, provide military assistance to civil authorities including consequence management operations. (NORTHCOM, 2003) NORTHCOM’s area of responsibility is the United States, Canada, and Mexico and the land, sea, and aerospace approaches to these countries. NORTHCOM is planning to provide support to any of the more than 79,000 municipalities scattered across the United States that may be subject to any type of disaster, whether man-made or natural. This combatant command continues to mature and to develop strategies. 3   As of March 2004.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR The U.S. Army Within the DOD, the Army is the service with the most experience in providing support to civilian authorities. It has provided the preponderance of support received by civilian authorities for all disasters for many years and has accumulated considerable experience in this area. The Army has a good understanding of what is required to save lives and mitigate damage and possesses important capabilities that could assist emergency responders. The Army’s organizational structure consists of three components: the active Army, the U.S. Army Reserve, and the Army National Guard. The Army National Guard, because of its dual state and federal responsibilities, is ideally suited to lead the homeland security mission for the Army. The National Guard Bureau has already begun this effort with the establishment and deployment of its Civil Support Teams to deal with the aftermath of an event involving weapons of mass destruction. The National Guard’s interface at the state level provides a natural bridge from the Army to emergency responders. Additionally, the institutional part of the Army4 provides a well-developed and structured research, development, testing, and evaluation (RDT&E) process and infrastructure that could assist emergency responders in developing, testing, and certifying the technologies needed to enhance their capabilities. The Army’s Future Force is designed to utilize network-centric warfare (NCW) capabilities to support the principles of “See first, Understand first, Act first, and Finish decisively.” This system-of-systems approach could also be applicable to the requirements for emergency responders to see, understand, and act upon the situations that they face. The opportunities for the DOD and the DHS to leverage this approach are considerable. Emergency Responders The Homeland Security Act of 2002 defines emergency response providers as including “federal, state, and local public safety, law enforcement, emergency response, emergency medical (including hospital emergency facilities), and related personnel, agencies, and authorities” (P.L. 107-296, Sec. 2(6)). These responders include hazardous materials response teams, urban search and rescue assets, community emergency response teams, antiterrorism units, special weapons and tactics teams, bomb squads, emergency management officials, and municipal agencies and private organizations responsible for transportation, communications, medical services, public health, disaster assistance, public works, and construction. Key responders also include emergency management personnel and political leaders at all levels who make crucial decisions and assessments during a crisis. 4   That is, the part of the Army that is not composed of tactical units; the institutional Army consists primarily of a recruiting command, a training base for individuals, and a logistical system.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Comparison of Acquisition in the Army and the Emergency Responder Community The ways in which the Army and the emergency responder community acquire technologies in the form of new products, processes, and procedures differ widely. The DOD has a very well developed model for acquisition, with formal procedures and top-to-bottom management. The emergency responders acquire new technology through local city and municipal purchasing agents. The DOD process is controlled by standards of practice and rigorous testing and certification, while the emergency responder community has far fewer formal procedures and sometimes none at all. The military acquisition process is designed to minimize failure and the attendant loss of life on the battlefield; however, because it is so methodical, it can be too slow for the purposes of many programs. Various ways have been devised to circumvent this problem. Spiral development, for example, is a process developed and refined by the Army to improve current capabilities through technology insertion. It involves fielding these new capabilities with a test unit, testing by that unit, and using the test results for fielding to the entire force. It is particularly suited for enhancing such capabilities as C4ISR. If it is interested in this process, the DHS might consider spiral development as part of a menu from which to choose options that would work for emergency responders. Unlike the Army, emergency responders have not had a dedicated RDT&E system at their disposal, and many are concerned by the lack of standardization and certification of items that they must purchase. There are, however, several efforts under way on behalf of responders: the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) coordinates the federal research programs designed to help responders, and the Interagency Board for Equipment Standardization and Interoperability (IAB) is developing agreed-upon standards for emergency responders. As the DHS continues to mature, the development of a more formal RDT&E system for emergency responders will be required. Scenarios The committee developed example scenarios described in Chapter 1 as an aid in assisting both the DOD and the DHS in determining requirements and capabilities necessary to structure a system to protect the homeland. The committee believes that scenarios can be a valuable tool to assist in the planning and execution of emergency response to disasters. They are helpful in determining the capabilities needed for emergency responders and can assist in training at all levels. Individuals can be trained in the specific tasks that they need to accomplish when these scenarios are blended into multidisciplinary, all-hazards training. The result can be more coordinated response to emergency situations. Scenarios

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR also help to provide a framework to improve compatibility between emergency responders and the Army. CAPABILITIES FOR THE ARMY’S FUTURE FORCE The Army’s Future Force5 is literally the future Army, with transformational changes required in the areas of leader development, acquisition, training, sustainment, and institutional initiatives. As discussed in Chapter 2, central to the Future Force is the concept of network-centric warfare (NCW). NCW is intended to provide three fundamental capabilities to the warfighter and his or her commander through real-time networking. NCW shifts the emphasis from platform-based to network-based capabilities, thereby generating the following opportunities: All members of the network will have access to all networked resources within established security protocols. Even single platforms can access all of the resources residing within the network. These resources include the sharing of situational awareness with all members of the network, so that all NCW participants can immediately see the whole battlefield. Networked commanders can make more informed decisions. The commander of an NCW force is able to see the whole picture from the viewpoint of any member of his or her network. The commander is thus able to understand the entire situation quickly. A networked force can more effectively and efficiently synchronize its assets. NCW provides commanders with the capability to generate precise warfighting effects at an unprecedented operational tempo, creating conditions for the rapid countering of adversary courses of action. As a result, operations may become more efficient and the conduct of war may change. For example, close air support operations may be significantly reduced by the increased ability to anticipate the need for air support and thus to avoid or minimize situations that involve a time-critical requirement for conducting air operations in close proximity to friendly forces. The committee anticipates that, just as NCW acts as a force multiplier on the battlefield, network-centric operations (NCO) could benefit homeland security. While some of the capabilities that are being developed for the Future Force might be too complex or expensive for the use of emergency responders, many of the technologies would be very helpful, and the concept of network-centric operations could provide a common framework for these technologies. 5   The Future Force (previously called the Objective Force) is the force that the Army is planning for its future. The Future Combat System (FCS) is envisioned as being one of several yet-to-be-determined systems that will be part of the Future Force.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR CAPABILITIES NEEDED FOR EMERGENCY RESPONDERS Chapter 3 identifies C4ISR requirements for emergency responders. It addresses capabilities currently lacking, as well as future emerging requirements, defining the following: the scope of the responder community, the tasks that this community could be required to perform, the conditions under which these activities might occur, and the characteristics and functionality of appropriate C4ISR technologies, and a description of training and exercise opportunities. Lastly, it ends with a description of Project Responder, an independent effort focusing on the status of equipment for emergency responders. It concludes that responders and Army forces share many common needs. In addition to individual C4ISR technologies, the committee observes that the Army’s network-centric approach to operations could serve emergency responders equally effectively. Such a system could produce significant efficiencies in terms of sharing skills, knowledge, and scarce, high-value assets; building capacity and redundancy in the national emergency response system; and gaining the synergy of providing a common operating picture to all responders. Network-centric systems could be particularly valuable for responding to large-scale or multiple attacks with weapons of mass destruction, in which responders would have to surge capacity quickly, be able to adapt to difficult and chaotic conditions, and respond to unforeseen situations. The value of a network-centric approach suggests that individual emergency responder systems have much to gain from being linked and integrated into a national system of systems. Emergency responders require C4ISR capabilities similar to those enabled by Army technologies, such as the abilities to perform C4ISR in urban environments, to network new capabilities with legacy systems, and to provide protection and redundancy against attacks on responder assets. DEFENSE TECHNOLOGIES FOR HOMELAND SECURITY Chapter 4 focuses on the technologies currently being developed in the Army or other DOD components in the area of C4ISR that may have application to the homeland security mission and the needs of emergency responders. It begins with a general discussion of the technical issues associated with C4ISR, primarily from a broad systems perspective. Some broad-based programs and tools at the integrated system level are identified that should be of interest to emergency responders and the DHS. The choice of “command, control, and computers” as a grouping was made because of the integral nature of decision-making algorithms and software now so prevalent in command-and-control systems, and in fact enabled by the vast data capacity and fast processing made available by today’s computers. “Communications” stands by itself as the backbone of any such system. The “intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance” aspect of C4ISR is treated as a single

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR entity because of the overlapping technologies underpinning the area. Finally, other programs and activities within the DOD that, although outside the strict C4ISR arena, offer real value to the emergency responder are discussed. For example, the major investment and significant advantages available in the DOD modeling and simulation arena are highlighted. POTENTIAL FOR COLLABORATION BETWEEN THE ARMY AND THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Chapter 5 discusses possible ways of bridging the gap between the Future Force technologies and emergency responder requirements and suggests means to facilitate collaboration between the DOD and the DHS to help specify and meet those requirements. Substantial overlap exists in the capabilities required by civilian emergency responders and by the Army. This overlap confirms the potential for collaborative efforts by the DOD and the DHS and the resultant establishment of a conduit for transferring technologies to state and local emergency responders. Table ES-1 highlights examples of potential collaborative efforts for certain technologies and programs that underpin C4ISR for the Army’s Future Force. Additionally, Chapter 5 explores six major opportunities for collaboration: Systems engineering: An integrated design approach to optimize the synergistic performance of a C4ISR system or systems of systems, so that its functions are executed in the most efficient and effective manner possible; Technology transfer coordination: The concept of establishing a joint Department of Homeland Security and Army collaboration forum for sharing mutually beneficial technologies and services with emergency responders; Experimentation, testing, and review: The extensive system of experimentation, testing, and evaluation processes and assets that exist within the DOD and that could be shared with the DHS where practical to avoid cost and duplication of effort; Training programs: The ability of the Army to assist the DHS in the development and execution of a multidisciplinary, multiechelon, and multihazard training, simulation, and exercise program for emergency responders; Network-centric operations: “See first, Understand first, and Act first” are network-centric warfare principles that clearly apply to the domain of the emergency responder. The Army might assist the DHS in the implementation of an integrated communications expressway that will facilitate NCO; and

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR TABLE ES-1 Bridge Between Department of the Army/DOD Science and Technology for the Future Force and Emergency Responder Requirements Aspect of C4ISR Future Force Requirements Leveraged Collaboration Communications Networked communications and data systems Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) (Army Acquisition) JTRS Squad Level (Army S&T) Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T) (Army Acquisition) Adaptive joint C4ISR node (Army S&T) Mobile network management (Army S&T) Command, Control, and Computers Act decisively Smart Sensor Web (DUSD S&T) C3-on-the-move demonstration (Army S&T) Future command post technologies (Army S&T) Intelligent information technology (DARPA S&T) C2 in complex and urban terrain (Army S&T) Battle space terrain reasoning and awareness (Army S&T) Forecasting, planning, and resource allocation (USN, USAF, Army S&T) Geospatial information integration and generation (Army S&T) Agile Commander (Army S&T) Decision support systems for C2 (USN S&T) Homeland Security/DA ACTD (Army and DHS S&T) Joint Force Blue Force Tracking ACTD (OSD/DISA S&T) Knowledge fusion (Army S&T) FBCB2 Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Know what the network knows Smart Sensor Web (DUSD S&T) Land Warrior (Army Acquisition) Objective Force Warrior (Army S&T) Warfighter Physiological Monitoring System, part of Objective Force Warrior (Army S&T) Joint Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance ACTD (OSD S&T) Network sensors for the Future Force (Army S&T) Advanced night vision goggles (Army S&T) Long-wave micro-IR sensors (Army S&T) Urban reconnaissance ACTD (OSD and NGA S&T) Network Embedded Systems Technology (DARPA S&T) UAVs/robotics Fusion-based knowledge for the Future Force Family of interoperable operational pictures

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Joint Development Collaboration Emergency Responder Requirements Joint interoperable communications between DOD and local responders In-building communications and tracking global information grid Networked communications and data systems Decision-support tools and algorithms Information aggregation, fusion, and sorting Intelligence data dissemination to uncleared entities (soldiers or local responders) C4ISR interfaces for simulations Informed event management Joint development of chemical/biological/nuclear sensors Smart sensor networks for urban environments Low-cost, disposable, networked, multiphenomenology sensors Urban UAVs and robotics Space, airborne, and terrestrial sensors Common operational picture

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Aspect of C4ISR Future Force Requirements Leveraged Collaboration Other Other DOD assets Joint Virtual Battlespace (Army S&T) Effects of Weapons Simulations (DTRA S&T) Flexible Asymmetric Simulation Toolkit (DMSO and USAF S&T) Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation-Laser Project (DMSO S&T) Dynamic mission readiness training (Army and USAF S&T) Chemical and biological hazard environment prediction (USN S&T) Portable and mobile power (Army S&T) NOTES: S&T, science and technology; DUSD S&T, Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Science and Technology; C3, command, control, and computers; DA, Department of the Army; DARPA, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; C2, command and control; USN, U.S. Navy; USAF, U.S. Air Force; ACTD, Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration; OSD/DISA, Office of the Secretary of Defense/Defense Information Systems Agency; FBCB2, Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below; IR, infrared; NGA, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency; UAVs, unmanned aerial vehicles; DTRA, Defense Threat Reduction Agency; DMSO, Defense Modeling and Simulation Office. Standardization efforts: The Army’s Mission Essential Task List training model could be beneficial if adopted by emergency responders. It would allow for definition of the capabilities required to respond to a terrorist attack and would highlight equipment, technology, and training deficiencies. Additionally, common product standards and conformity testing would ensure better interoperability between DOD and emergency responder equipment. The committee believes that significant opportunities exist for collaboration between the Army and the DHS to secure the homeland more effectively. Several elements of C4ISR could be used to establish a more formal paradigm to address additional areas. The committee also recognizes that the DHS, because of its relative newness, faces numerous organizational challenges. These challenges, coupled with the current high operational tempo of the Army, make policy commitment on behalf of both organizations possibly the biggest hurdle to overcome.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Joint Development Collaboration Emergency Responder Requirements Virtual emergency exercises Plume and fire simulators Other However, the events of September 11 underscore why all obstacles to this collaborative process must be overcome. The requirement for C4ISR is ubiquitous, whether for the Army’s Future Force or for the future emergency responder. The committee is convinced that quick action on the part of the Army can provide beneficial C4ISR solutions to the Department of Homeland Security that will ensure a high level of interoperability between emergency responders and the Army should our nation be forced again to respond to a catastrophic event on U.S. soil. REFERENCES NORTHCOM (Northern Command). 2003. Who We Are—Mission. Available online at <http://www.northcom.mil/index.cfm?fuseaction=s.who_mission>. Accessed March 26, 2004. NRC (National Research Council). 2003. Science and Technology for Army Homeland Security: Report 1. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press.