Appendix D
Army Acquisition System

ARMY TECHNOLOGY AND SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

There are several phases to Army technology development, starting with a requirements analysis. In many cases, existing commercial technology can be adapted to military use—for example, computer technology. In other cases, no technology exists to meet the need, and it must be developed.

A technology development program normally flows through several phases, although a specific program can start at any phase, depending on the requirement and the maturity of any existing technology. The technology development phases are as follows: basic technology development, concept demonstration, technology demonstration, and system development.

The basic technology development, concept demonstration, and technology demonstration phases are normally called a science and technology (S&T) program. As the name implies, the focus of these programs is the science and the technology.

The systems development phases are usually called the acquisition phases, which normally encompass systems development, production, and life-cycle support of the system. The focus in these programs is primarily on engineering and support issues. Cost issues are also extremely important in the acquisition phases, with a focus on life-cycle cost (i.e., including the cost of systems engineering development, production, and maintenance and then final disposition of the system). Each phase has its unique characteristics and focus.



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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Appendix D Army Acquisition System ARMY TECHNOLOGY AND SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT There are several phases to Army technology development, starting with a requirements analysis. In many cases, existing commercial technology can be adapted to military use—for example, computer technology. In other cases, no technology exists to meet the need, and it must be developed. A technology development program normally flows through several phases, although a specific program can start at any phase, depending on the requirement and the maturity of any existing technology. The technology development phases are as follows: basic technology development, concept demonstration, technology demonstration, and system development. The basic technology development, concept demonstration, and technology demonstration phases are normally called a science and technology (S&T) program. As the name implies, the focus of these programs is the science and the technology. The systems development phases are usually called the acquisition phases, which normally encompass systems development, production, and life-cycle support of the system. The focus in these programs is primarily on engineering and support issues. Cost issues are also extremely important in the acquisition phases, with a focus on life-cycle cost (i.e., including the cost of systems engineering development, production, and maintenance and then final disposition of the system). Each phase has its unique characteristics and focus.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Requirements Analysis The requirements analysis, the start of any program, looks at the capability needed by the user and generates a user’s need statement. For example, the capability may be that a squad leader needs to know where his or her squad member is in a building in an urban environment. The material developer, working closely with the user, uses a prioritized scheme to meet that need. The first approach is to use existing equipment and a change in technique, tactics, or procedures to meet the need. If that is not possible, the next priority is to modify existing equipment to meet the need. If this is not possible, the material developer initiates a technology development program. For a technology development program there is again a priority scheme. The first priority is to use commercial off-the-shelf technology and to modify it for military use. Again, for this example, the material developer may look at using the commercial Global Positioning System (GPS) for the individual soldier. (Unfortunately, GPS doesn’t work inside buildings.) If there is no technology available in the commercial sector, the developer initiates a development program, described below. Basic Technology Development Basic technology development is focused on basic research toward a technology with potential application to the military user. The Army usually puts its research dollars into technologies that would not normally be developed in the private sector. For example, improved infrared semiconductors, which would eventually improve the Army’s night vision capability, are good candidates for development. Likewise, stealth technology would be a candidate, as it has great military utility and limited civilian application. Contrast such technologies with computer chips or basic communications technology, for which the commercial sector drives investment that the Army should try to leverage. Concept Demonstration Once a technology has been developed, it can move to concept demonstration, a proof-of-principle experiment showing the potential application of the technology. Usually the technology is not completely mature at this stage and will need further development. For example, using a through-the-wall radar to show that individuals can be “seen” is a proof of principle—even though all the components are not yet mature. Technology Demonstration A technology demonstration, as well as an advanced technology demonstration, represents a more mature (although not completely mature) technical

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR approach and sophisticated demonstration of military utility. The technology may be developed by the military, or it may be a commercial off-the-shelf product adapted for military use, or a mix. An even more mature advanced concept technology demonstration uses mature technology and normally includes a leave-behind system for limited military use, as well as a logistics support package for a couple of years. Systems Development or Acquisition Programs Once a technology demonstration has been successfully conducted, the program may move into an acquisition phase. This is the most costly part of the development cycle, and the focus shifts from technology to engineering the system for military use. The focus here is normally life-cycle management, which includes the costs of systems engineering development, production, testing, maintenance and logistics support, upgrades, and disposal. Under usual circumstances, and depending on the complexity of the system, the systems engineering phases can take from 2 to 5 years. The testing during this phase is usually very comprehensive, involving the user community to ensure that the system meets the user’s needs. OTHER DEVELOPMENT ISSUES FOR HOMELAND SECURITY CONSIDERATION The focus of this report is technology that could be useful for emergency responders. In addition, it may be worthwhile for the homeland security user community to consider other resources that the Army has spent many years and dollars developing that support technology development. Clear examples include, in particular, the engineering support from the Research, Development, and Engineering Centers (RDECs), the testing capability resident in the Army, and the logistics and maintenance concepts. Army Materiel Command Research and Development Command The Army recently created the Army Materiel Command Research and Development Command to better coordinate its research and technology efforts. The command consists primarily of a headquarters element, which provides supervision and coordination; the RDECs, which provide the demonstration and acquisition support to the Army; and the Army Research Laboratory, which is focused on basic technology development and early concept demonstration. Army Research Laboratory. The Army Research Laboratory, headquartered in Adelphi, Maryland, is the responsible activity within the Army for early technology development, including basic research and early

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR concept development. It has a talented technical pool, supporting primarily internal research of technologies of interest to the Army. For example, the laboratory’s Materials Division works on new, sophisticated materials for future infrared systems and has extensive capability in automatic target detection, acoustics, and so on. The parallel organization in the Army that supports external funding is the Army Research Office, with an emphasis on basic research. RDECs. The Army has several RDECs with a wealth of scientific and engineering talent that can be called on by the homeland security community. These centers can support buying decisions with technical evaluations, can do component and system evaluation to support Qualified Product Lists, and can help develop technology demonstrations. Currently, the Communication and Electronic Command RDEC is supporting the New York City Transit Authority in a demonstration project. Testing The Army, as well as other components of the DOD, has significant testing ranges as well as a system for testing equipment to ensure that it meets users’ needs. The testing includes operation or performance testing as well as maintenance and logistics support testing. Logistics and Maintenance Concepts Critical to any successful system for use by either the military or emergency responders is a logistics and maintenance concept. Usually developed during the systems development step/phase, the maintenance and logistics concept supports the sustainability of an item of equipment for many years, ensuring that the equipment can be serviced, repaired as necessary, replaced, and disposed of at the end of its life cycle. The Army has many years of experience in this area, usually resident in its logistical and commodities centers.