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Defense Technologies for Homeland Security

INTRODUCTION

Overview and Scope

This chapter focuses on the technologies that are currently being developed in the Army or other components of the Department of Defense (DOD) in the area of command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) and which the committee believes may have potential application to the homeland security mission and emergency responders. Much of the information contained in the chapter is derived from Army and DOD documentation, from briefings presented to the panel, and from first-hand knowledge of the study committee members. No attempt is made to offer a comprehensive presentation with respect to these technologies, because of both space and study schedule limitations. Rather, it is the committee’s intent to present to the Army and the homeland security community those technologies that the committee believes may have relevance for emergency responders and which could prompt further interaction between the Army and the emergency responder community.

Very little discussion of commercial programs is presented here, as the committee believed that to do a credible and comprehensive job in such an endeavor would far exceed the scope of the present report; also, it was reluctant to highlight a particular commercial product without reviewing other similar available products. Nevertheless, there certainly are products being developed in the commercial world that would be of great benefit to the emergency responder. A major contribution has been made by commercial industry in the development of software



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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR 4 Defense Technologies for Homeland Security INTRODUCTION Overview and Scope This chapter focuses on the technologies that are currently being developed in the Army or other components of the Department of Defense (DOD) in the area of command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) and which the committee believes may have potential application to the homeland security mission and emergency responders. Much of the information contained in the chapter is derived from Army and DOD documentation, from briefings presented to the panel, and from first-hand knowledge of the study committee members. No attempt is made to offer a comprehensive presentation with respect to these technologies, because of both space and study schedule limitations. Rather, it is the committee’s intent to present to the Army and the homeland security community those technologies that the committee believes may have relevance for emergency responders and which could prompt further interaction between the Army and the emergency responder community. Very little discussion of commercial programs is presented here, as the committee believed that to do a credible and comprehensive job in such an endeavor would far exceed the scope of the present report; also, it was reluctant to highlight a particular commercial product without reviewing other similar available products. Nevertheless, there certainly are products being developed in the commercial world that would be of great benefit to the emergency responder. A major contribution has been made by commercial industry in the development of software

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR tools, particularly decision-making tools, that can easily be adapted to military and/or emergency responder use. Likewise, commercial standards such as those established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and current and evolving Internet protocols can be very helpful in achieving interoperability across the plethora of agencies involved in homeland security, and the committee believes that these standards ought to be categorized and incorporated into any equipment development programs by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Conclusion 4-1. The U.S. Army has developed a significant number of C4ISR technologies for the Future Force that appear to have direct applicability to the emergency responder community. Recommendation 4-1. The U.S. Army and the Department of Homeland Security should evaluate the systems described in Chapter 4 of this report for their potential to support interagency collaboration. Organization of This Chapter Following the methodology adopted in Chapters 2 and 3, the committee divided the C4ISR elements as follows: command, control, and computers (C3); communications (C); and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). As explained previously, the choice of command, control, and computers as a grouping was made because of the integral nature of decision-making algorithms and software now so prevalent in command-and-control systems, and in fact enabled by the vast data capacity and fast processing made available by today’s computers. “Communications” stands by itself as the backbone of any such system. The ISR aspect of C4ISR is treated as a single entity because of the overlapping technologies underpinning the area. This chapter begins with a general discussion of the technical issues associated with C4ISR, primarily from a broad system perspective. The committee identifies some broad-based programs and tools, at the integrated system level, that may be of interest to emergency responders and to the DHS. After a general technical discussion of C4ISR, attention is turned to the component-level areas (C3, C, and ISR). Finally, after a discussion of the technologies, the committee identifies some of the programs believed to be relevant, perhaps with modifications, to the emergency responder community and the DHS. Tables throughout this chapter (Tables 4-1 through 4-5) summarize the technologies relevant to each major aspect of C4ISR. Finally, the committee offers some comments on other programs and activities within the DOD that, although outside the strict C4ISR arena, offer real value to the emergency responder. For example, attention is given to the major investment and significant advantages available in the DOD modeling and simulation arena.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR C4ISR Technical Description General Description Science and technology (S&T) in the area of C4ISR is designed to enable comprehensive situational awareness for network-centric operations (U.S. Army, 2003). As such, it has several technical components: the generation of sensor data; the processing required to turn these sensor data into information; the movement of the data or information through a communications system to another location; the integration of the information from various sources, both internal and external, to turn it into intelligence; the presentation of the intelligence to a user or a decision-support software program in a comprehensible fashion; and the dissemination of the decisions (commands) and selected information to subordinate elements. Each activity described here has its own unique—and sometimes complex—technology. Integrated System Issues There are several issues associated with an effective C4ISR system that must be addressed in any technical solution. Many of these issues are being addressed in current Army and DOD programs. One such issue is whether or not the system will rely on commercial infrastructures, particularly power and fixed communications lines, or will be entirely self-reliant. Another key issue is mobility—that is, whether the system is fixed at one or more locations or is mobile. Of importance are the power and bandwidth issues, particularly those involving high-bandwidth video imagery, associated with the sensors and the movement of raw or processed data. A key parameter is information latency, tied closely to computer processing time and communication bandwidth. Another sometimes-related parameter involves the uncertainty associated with the generation of information and how the information will be used in the decision-making process. Another major systems issue is cost, particularly life-cycle cost. A brief discussion of some aspects of these key parameters follows. Reliance on existing infrastructure versus a completely independent system as the backbone or even a component of a C4ISR system is probably the key design issue for the entire system, particularly with respect to the sensor system and the communications system. The design of a sensor system may be entirely different if it is a mobile, deployable system relying on battery power and a limited communications system—such as the Army’s legacy Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System—instead of being at a fixed site, utilizing infrastructure power and communication lines. In the latter case, power and bandwidth issues are not as constraining as in the former case, and even in the event of a power failure, there is usually a redundancy in power that will keep the system up and running for a period of time. However, in a catastrophic event, emergency

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR responders may not be able to rely on fixed infrastructure, and so the capability of an independent system, at least on a temporary basis, would be prudent. Mobility issues are related to but not identical to fixed-infrastructure issues. A mobile system can still rely heavily on the use of commercial power or communication lines as part of its technical solution. A completely independent mobile system using its own power and communications infrastructure is probably the ideal case—although, owing to power and bandwidth constraints, there may be limitations on system performance. The Army’s Warfighter Information Network-Tactical (WIN-T) and C31-on-the-Move Demonstration are addressing both the independent infrastructure and the mobility issues. Data latency (i.e., how much and how fast data or information can be transmitted across a network) is very important. In some cases, particularly if an emergency responder’s life may be at risk, late information or direction may be useless or even detrimental if the responder was relying on it. Latency is associated with processing power (how fast sensor data can be converted to information) and communication bandwidth availability (how fast the information can be provided to the appropriate decision maker or user). Closely related to this issue are the generation and transport of video imagery across the network. Video imagery requires considerable bandwidth, raising the question of what is good enough. Are two or three frames sufficient, or does the military or incident commander need full video? If the latter, what frame rates are sufficient—say, 10 frames per second or 30 frames per second? Is a sensor processor declaration that an object is a T-72 tank sufficient, or must the analyst see an image of it to be sure? The Army’s Network Sensors for the Future Force Program is addressing the generation and transport of video imagery across the network. The uncertainty in information and the conversion of information to intelligence are also key issues, not independent of the latency and amount of information transferred. Uncertainty is generated in different ways. It could arise when a sensor, using automatic target recognition software, identifies a T-72 tank with a 90 percent confidence interval. It could also result from a human looking at an image and making a best guess at identifying it. Using aggregated information and trying to infer enemy composition and intent involve an inherent uncertainty that must be understood when courses of action are developed. The Army’s Knowledge Fusion Program is looking at some of these issues. Finally, there is the difficulty of delivering information to the end user as it is needed and in a form that supports the task at hand, whether the user is a civilian incident commander, an infantry squad leader, or an individual soldier. Excess information, causing information overload, can be as detrimental as too little information. The concept of “push-pull” has been used in this area, with “push” meaning that certain information deemed to be important to a certain user is 1   In this case, C3 retains the conventional meaning of command, control, and communications.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR automatically sent to him or her based on some pre-selected criteria, and “pull” meaning that information is sent only when it is asked for. How the information is presented, whether on a computer display, in an audio message, by a vibration, and so on, is also important. Additionally, the problem of cost is associated with some of the Army’s high-performance sensors, particularly high-resolution, platform-based infrared imaging sensors. No matter how good they are, if the sensors cost too much, the system can become unaffordable for the Army. Cost may also be important to emergency responders because much equipment is procured through local budgets or grants. If emergency responder acquisitions cannot be bundled to achieve the economies of scale seen in military procurements, costs may be prohibitive at the local level. Relevant Integrated Systems Technology Programs Several programs attempt to look at the C4ISR system as a whole and to deal with the full complexity of systems integration. Three of these programs are noted here, with one, the C3-on-the-Move Demonstration, looking at providing integrated information to the rapidly moving platforms associated with Future Force and Future Combat Systems (FCS), and the other two, Land Warrior and Future Force Warrior, focusing more at the lower-echelon, infantry-level platform, the soldier. The committee believes that these programs are of particular importance for their applicability to emergency responders. The relevant integrated systems technology programs are shown in Table 4-1. C4ISR COMPONENT TECHNOLOGIES AND PROGRAMS Command, Control, and Computer Technologies As discussed above, C3 technologies can support emergency responders’ need for informed event management. The following is a general discussion of technical issues and a follow-on discussion of applicable DOD programs. Table 4-2 presents information on the relevant C3 technologies, including a brief description or statement of purpose and an availability assessment. General Discussion of Technical Issues The general technical issues associated with command and control are primarily focused on the aggregation of different information from various sources to support the incident commander’s decision-making process. The ability to fuse information from different sources into a coherent picture of the battlespace or disaster scene and the use of decision-support tools are the key technical aspects.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR TABLE 4-1 Integrated Systems Technology Programs Relevant to Emergency Responders Program Description Availabilitya Command, Control and Communications on-the-Move Demonstration (Army S&T) Demonstration of an integrated C3 on-the-move capability utilizing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance assets and networked firepower,b which will show that the information from these sensors can be moved to a command-and-control location, on the move, digested, and disseminated by a command-and-control system quickly and effectively (Fillian;c U.S. Army, 2003). Technologies from this effort can assist responders in developing more efficient mobile command centers. R Land Warrior (LW) Program (Army Acquisition) Program designed to significantly improve the capability of the individual soldier and to implement the soldier-as-a-system concept. One of its key elements will be improved C4ISR. It integrates many commercial and government off-the-shelf technologies into the soldier platform. It combines computers, lasers, geolocation, and radios with the soldier’s current mission package, giving him or her a significant increase in C4ISR capability. The program is structured in three phases: (1) LW-IC, or initial capability in FY 2004; (2) LW-SI, or Stryker Interoperable, providing recharge on the move and expanded situational awareness; and (3) LW-AC, or advanced capability, incorporating several improvements from the Army’s Future Force Warrior program: specifically, weight reduction and extended mission duration (U.S. Army, 2003). Technologies from this program will enhance the capabilities of individual responders. For example, a firefighter in a large, smoke-filled building would have better awareness of his or her own location and that of fellow responders, as well as access to critical information. The firefighter would also have better communications with his or her team and leaders. N Future Combat Systems (FCS) C4ISR Secure C4ISR system to harness advances in the distribution and effective use of information power (U.S. Army, 2003). The FCS C4ISR programs are a component of the FCS program currently managed via a Lead System Integrator contractor. N Future Force Warrior (FFW) Advanced Technology Demonstration (Army S&T) Effort to allow the individual to interface with external platforms and sources of information, including unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, and the Future Force C4ISR network. It will integrate the Joint Tactical Radio System squad-level communications system (described in Table 4-3), allowing an interface with the F

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Program Description Availabilitya   integrated force structure, and provide information to support networked firepower. Another key improvement, particularly of interest to emergency responders, is the Warfighter Physiological Status Monitor, allowing the commander to track the health status of the individual soldier at all times. This system allows the commander to dispatch medical assistance whenever necessary. The FFW program is also addressing the two critical issues associated with these individual, mobile systems—power and weight. These two parameters are the real limitation to any such system, and new power sources, such as fuel cells, and lightweight materials are the potential answers (U.S. Army, 2003). Individual responders will have even more enhanced capabilities than those from Land Warrior technologies. Not only will responders be able to operate more efficiently individually, but they will also be more effective as a team. Leaders will also have better awareness of the status of the responders under their control.   aAvailability: R, ready (TRL 8-9); N, near term (TRL 4-7); F, far term (TRL 1-3). See Appendix G in this report for descriptions of technology readiness levels (TRLs). b“Networked firepower” means the coordinated use of a variety of munitions such as artillery, rockets, and so on. cLarry Fillian, Director, Command and Control Directorate, Communications-Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center, “C4ISR Enabling Technologies,” briefing to the committee, Washington, D.C., July 22, 2003. TABLE 4-2 Summary of Programs Relevant to Emergency Responders: Command, Control, and Computer (C3) Technologies Program Description Availabilitya Command and Control in Complex and Urban Terrain (Army S&T) A suite of command-and-control tools for the dismounted warrior in an urban environment, providing enhanced collaboration, information reach-back, mixed asset management, and seamless situational understanding. In particular, this program will develop distributed command-and-control tactical decision aids, applications, and models addressing decision making with partial and missing information in complex/urban terrain (U.S. Army, 2003). Tools from this effort will allow responders to better manage personnel and equipment assets in an urban environment. In particular, responders will have a better view of the urban situation and will be able to make more informed decisions. F

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Program Description Availabilitya Battle Terrain Reasoning and Awareness (Army S&T) A comprehensive suite of terrestrial and lower-atmosphere battlespace environment tactical decision aids (TDAs) that generate information and knowledge necessary to enable decision and execution processes across C4ISR systems. These tools capture the interrelationships and effects of terrain and weather on force/threat behavior as well as platform and system performance. TDA-generated information and knowledge products will be of robust content and lightweight structure, supporting tactical dissemination and automated decision support tools of other C4ISR system-specific C4ISR decision-support tools (U.S. Army, 2003). Tools from this effort will greatly support responders after a hurricane or other natural disaster, during which large regions have lost power and communications. Responders will be able to analyze terrain and weather data to best determine the location of communication and sensor assets. F Geospatial Information Integration and Generation Tools (Army S&T) Tools to integrate, manage, and exploit multisource data imagery, features, and elevation data to present only relevant terrain data to the user. Work will be done to fuse the data from synthetic aperture radar, inverse synthetic aperture radar, infrared, and other sender data into digital terrain maps. Algorithms will be developed to assist in feature extraction, automatic determination of optimal routes of movement in and out of an area, automatic damage assessment, and integration of satellite data. The end use for responders should be the ability to reach out over a network and retrieve the latest, multisenor, multiphenomenology terrain and feature data available and to use intelligent tools to assist in the processing and evaluation of the information presented (U.S. Army, 2003). F Agile Commander Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) (Army S&T) A dispersed, highly mobile command post that provides the commander with continuous, responsive, proactive, real-time battlespace management information during both stationary and mobile operations. The Agile Commander will provide a scalable and reconfigurable command, control, computers, communications, and intelligence multifunction operator environment with access to all command post information. One of the key tools being developed is the Distributed Analysis and Visualization Infrastructure (DaVinci) tool set. This tool set is an advanced suite of decision aid software that executes execution-centric, mobile command and control (U.S. Army, 2003). This effort can be leveraged by responders to develop better mobile command centers. F

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Program Description Availabilitya Homeland Security Command-and-Control Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (Defense Information Systems Agency and U.S. Air Force [USAF] S&T) A 5-year program to define, refine, and transition technologies and concepts of operation to significantly increase DOD homeland security responsiveness in areas of consequence management, crisis response, deterrence, and intelligence coordination. The assured communications must be deployable, flexible, redundant, wireless, and protected. The interoperability capability must use hardware and software that operate across all levels of government under daily conditions, conditions of increased vigilance, and crisis. The threat alerts/attribution capability must focus on prediction, alerts, warnings, and prevention, as well as pattern and relationship identification. The command, control, and communications portion will focus on the full range of capabilities to plan, assess, make decisions, communicate decisions, and receive feedback.b This effort will significantly improve the interoperability between the military and responders. N Knowledge Fusion (Army S&T) An effort to resolve the main problem with nascent knowledge management systems that overload the user with information. Intelligent agents are used to break large problems into smaller components that can (possibly) be handled in a parallel manner. Ontology agents identify classes of information and organize them hierarchically according to user-established rules.c The integration of similar intelligent agents in responder decision-making tools will reduce the detrimental effects of information overload. F Joint Blue Force Situational Awareness (JBFSA) ACTD (Office of the Secretary of Defense S&T) Software interfaces and connectivity enabling the integration of existing blue force tracking systems to create a blue force situational awareness picture within the global command-and-control system family of systems common operational picture. JBFSA ACTD will provide improved situational awareness, tracking, tagging, and locating, as well as logistics and asset management information to the Joint Force commander’s common operational picture (DOD, 2003). The employment of similar software interfaces in responder command-and-control systems will help provide leaders a more integrated view of their personnel and equipment assets with respect to the emergency situation. N

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Program Description Availabilitya Future Command Post Technologies (Army S&T) Prototype command-and-control product applications for functionally and physically agile, rapidly deployable, and distributed operations that will enable commanders to execute operations ranging from war to humanitarian assistance. The technical integration and development effort includes command-and-control tools and mobile adaptive computing.d This effort can be leveraged by responders to develop better command centers. F Intelligent Information Technology (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and USAF S&T) An effort to enable the military/emergency crisis responder team to rapidly obtain and assimilate information and knowledge relevant to the decisions that must be made in an ongoing crisis or conflict situation. It will develop and demonstrate new technology to detect and identify the presence of biowarfare or bioterrorist attack; rapidly build and use comprehensive knowledge bases to interpret, reason, and respond to the changing critical situation; and develop multimodal human identification (HumanID) biometric technologies to detect, recognize, and identify humans at a distance to support early warning, force protection, and operations against terrorist, criminal, and other human-based threats.d Tools from this effort will greatly assist responders in accessing military and civilian information and knowledge in the areas described in this entry. F Forecasting, Planning, and Resource Allocation (U.S. Navy [USN], USAF, Army S&T) Secure, network-centric, intelligent-agent-assisted collaboration environment for faster decision making. It will demonstrate intelligent, self-organizing, adaptive, agent-based software allowing commanders to interactively create, share, and merge plans; monitor execution; and interactively repair plans.d The integration of similar intelligent-agent-assisted software into responder command-and-control systems will greatly enhance the capability of responder leaders to manage a situation. F Decision Support Systems for Command and Control (USN S&T) Technologies to enhance the decision-making skills of military commanders and their battle staffs. Example technologies include computational models of human information processing and decision making, Bayesian models for effects-based planning, and advanced multimodal workstations for decision-support systems.d The integration of similar models and multimodal workstations into responder command-and-control systems will greatly enhance the capability of responder leaders to manage a situation. F

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Program Description Availabilitya Commander-in-Chief (CINC) 21 ACTD (USN and Office of the Secretary of Defense S&T) Technologies to enhance the efficiency and coordination of joint and coalition operations through decision-focused command-and-control support functions; enhance the speed and quality of command decision making through the exploitation of knowledge and information management tools and the identification, extraction, and optimal presentation of knowledge and information to decision makers; improve the ability of the CINC’s “extended” staff to track and manage multiple simultaneous crises; and free decision makers from being tied to their command centers (AITS-JPO, 2003). Tools from this effort should be leveraged to enhance responder command-and-control systems, especially in the areas of decision-making processes and the tracking and managing of crises. N aAvailability: R, ready (TRL 8-9); N, near term (TRL 4-7); F, far term (TRL 1-3). See Appendix G in this report for descriptions of technology readiness levels (TRLs). bGlenn Cooper, Assistant Technical Manager, Defense Information Systems Agency, “Homeland Security/Homeland Security Command and Control ACTD,” briefing to the committee, Washington, D.C., August 25, 2003. cDan Kuderna, Communications and Electronics Research, Development and Engineering Center, “Fusion-Based Knowledge for the Objective Force,” briefing to the committee, Washington, D.C., August 26, 2003. dSelected information provided by the Office of the Director, Defense Research and Engineering, December 4, 2003. Fusion Technologies. Information fusion is the combination and distillation of information from various databases driven by a set of search algorithms designed to focus on answers to a set of queries. Knowledge management, expert systems, and artificial intelligence all contribute to information fusion. Knowledge management combines the capture of an organization’s information with (relatively) easy retrieval and use of that information by the corporate body. The intent is to make the knowledge that exists in a variety of locations available to the entire organization. Expert systems and artificial intelligence generally focus on narrow domains to assist human endeavors. Fusion technology systems attempt to take functions performed by humans and assist or replicate the actions of the human. Image fusion combines images from several or various types of sensors into a single image for the viewer. This image, for example, could take the form of a digital terrain map that has icons of friendly and enemy forces depicted as an overlay. The data on the force locations could be received in message format from an intelligence or headquarters organization. It could also take the form, for example, of a combination of a photographic image taken in the visible spectrum,

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance General Discussion of Technical Issues Generally speaking, the technologies associated with ISR are the processing technologies at sensors or the sensor nodes, sensor communication networks that carry either the raw data or the processed data or information, higher-level fusion (discussed above) and processing aids such as automatic target recognition or higher-level aggregation and interpretation software, and displays. Table 4-4 presents information on the relevant ISR technologies, including a brief description or statement of purpose and an availability assessment. TABLE 4-4 Summary of Programs Relevant to Emergency Responders: Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Program Description Availabilitya Joint Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD) (Office of the Secretary of Defense [OSD] S&T) Provide timely top-down/bottom-up information to enable enhanced battlespace visualization. The objective is to provide a significantly enhanced capability to dominate situational awareness through the use of a Web-based browser and information agents, Joint Technical Architecture-compliant sensor interfaces, commercial/ government off-the-shelf complexity reduction tools, distributed database management, and improved visualization and display tools (U.S. Army, 2003). This effort will greatly enhance the ISR capabilities of emergency responders at the regional, state, and national levels. It will also assist these same responders in accessing ISR information from military and national assets. N Networked Sensors for the Future Forceb (Army S&T) Develop and integrate off-board sensor packages onto mobile platforms (unmanned ground vehicles [UGVs], mini unmanned aerial vehicles [UAVs], unattended ground sensors [UGSs]) and create a system of systems that can be networked in complex terrain (including urban areas). The program integrates and demonstrates enabling sensors—uncooled infrared (IR), flash laser with short-wave IR, mini UAV, UGV, microsensors (acoustic, seismic, IR imaging, magnetic, and radio frequency); assesses network communications performance resulting from the Warrior Extended Battlespace Sensors science and technology objective (STO) and Smart Sensor Communications Network STO; and includes an intelligence reach-back capability for threat profile development, sensor deployment, and smart data management (U.S. Army, F

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Program Description Availabilitya   2003). This networked sensor system will enhance ISR capabilities of emergency responders at all levels, but especially at the individual and small-team level.   Advanced Night Vision Goggle (ANVG) (Army S&T) Develop and demonstrate the Air Warrior operations requirement for an integrated, 100-degree field of view helmet-mounted night vision goggle system. The ANVG will be a modular horizontal technology integration design that can also meet requirements for Mounted Warrior and Land Warrior, allowing head mounting for night driving, navigation, or handheld weapon usage. Additionally, for the dismounted application, an uncooled or short-wave infrared or forward-looking infrared camera will be added to the helmet-mounted assembly, providing thermal image insert to the image intensifier to enhance target detection performance and complement the image intensification performance (U.S. Army, 2003). This goggle will greatly enhance the vision of individual emergency responders in adverse visual conditions, especially vision restricted by lack of light or by smoke. It will also give them a much larger field of view than current systems do. N Long-Wave Micro-IR Sensor (Army S&T) Develop miniature long-wave infrared thermal imagers based on advances in detectors, electronic components, and read-out integrated circuits. An intermediate result of this development effort was the Alpha camera, which went into production in 1999 as the world’s first miniature thermal imager. The Omega camera, which went into full-scale production in 2002, improved on every significant aspect of its precursor.c The significant reduction in size and cost of the sensor and its capability to thermally image through smoke make it an ideal candidate to be added to the helmet of emergency personnel. R Urban Recon ACTD (OSD and National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency [NGA] S&T) Provide a suite of terrestrial and airborne sensor and software capabilities enabling the warfighter to conduct effective urban terrain reconnaissance below the roofline, under the canopy, and within buildings. A user will be able to dynamically visualize a high-definition three-dimensional objective database in real time. The ACTD will develop applications for advanced urban decision aids and will leverage evolving technologies of geolocation and portable computing technology (U.S. Army, undated). With these technologies, emergency responders will have an enhanced capability for viewing the current situation within an urban environment, especially during and after a disaster. R

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Program Description Availabilitya Networked Embedded Systems Technology (NEST) (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency [DARPA] S&T) Enable “fine-grain” fusion of physical and information processes. The quantitative target is to build dependable, real-time, distributed, embedded applications comprising 100 to 100,000 simple computing nodes. The nodes include physical and information system components coupled by sensors, actuators, and communications devices. NEST is an intelligent, Web-centric distribution and fusion of sensor information that will greatly enhance the situational awareness (friendly/enemy/civilian locations, sniper detection, and so on) of warfighters at lower echelons. It provides urban environment three-dimensional tracking of blue force personnel by allowing the warfighters to carry enough sensors (the size of a quarter) to “seed” a building while walking through it. The blue force will have radio frequency tags to stay connected to the NEST network (DARPA, undated). These technologies will allow for the continuous tracking of emergency responders in buildings, in subways, or in other situations where global positioning systems do not work. F Joint Biological Agent Identification and Agent Diagnostic System (OSD Joint Program Office [JPO] S&T) Rapidly, reliably, and simultaneously identify multiple biological agents and pathogens. The ability to interface with electronic medical records/surveillance and early warning and reporting systems will occur in follow-on blocks (U.S. Army, 2003). This capability will allow emergency responders to detect the outbreak of a biological attack before it reaches epidemic proportions. It may also track day-to-day biological events such as the outbreak of flu epidemics. N Joint Biological Point Detection System (OSD JPO Acquisition) Complete sensor suite with collector, automated assays, and detectors, as well as waste management, to identify 10 biological threat agents simultaneously in 20 minutes, as well as to collect liquid samples for confirmatory analysis. It is portable and can be installed in ships, vehicles, and fixed or semi-fixed sites. Eventually it is expected to identify up to 26 agents simultaneously. It can operate remotely at up to 5 kilometers and will interface with the Joint Warning and Reporting System (U.S. Army, 2003). This capability will allow emergency responders to detect the outbreak of a biological attack before it reaches epidemic proportions. N

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Program Description Availabilitya Joint Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology (OSD JPO Acquisition) Protect against chemical or biological agents, produce a protective clothing ensemble that can be tailored to the diverse operational needs of the individual person and is compatible with existing and emerging protective clothing (U.S. Army, 2003). These suits will be of great value to emergency responders who are called to assist in a chemical or biological attack crisis situation. N Joint Service Lightweight Nuclear Biological Chemical Reconnaissance System (OSD JPO Acquisition) Develop a system that consists of a base vehicle equipped with handheld, portable, and mounted, current and advanced nuclear, biological, and chemical identification equipment. The vehicle has collection, overpressure, navigation, meteorological data processing, internal and external communications, and surface sampler systems (U.S. Army, 2003). This equipment will provide emergency responders with a mobile, self-contained chemical/biological ISR capability. N Joint Service Lightweight Standoff Chemical Agent Detectors (OSD JPO Acquisition) Identify chemically contaminated battlespaces and provide enhanced early warning. The detector is a passive, standoff, chemical detector for detection, identification, mapping, and reporting of nerve, blister, and blood agent vapors. This system can communicate with the Joint Early Warning and Reporting Network (U.S. Army, 2003). This will provide individual responders a standoff, static chemical/biological ISR capability. N aAvailability: R, ready (TRL 8-9); N, near term (TRL 4-7); F, far term (TRL 1-3). See Appendix G in this report for descriptions of technology readiness levels (TRLs). bOne of the study committee members, Joseph P. Mackin, works for the company that supports this program—E-OIR Measurements, Inc., and so recused himself from specific discussion of this program. cStuart Horn, Science and Technology Division, Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Division, Communications-Electronic Research, Development and Engineering Center, “Uncooled Micro Sensors,” briefing to the committee, Washington, D.C., August 26, 2003. IR/Thermal Detector Technologies. The Army has had a leading role in developing IR and thermal detector technologies during the past five decades. The major technology investment has been in mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe). High-performance detector systems based on this technology are in use or under development. Other detector technologies include bolometers, quantum well infrared photodetectors, and Schottky barrier internal photoemission detectors. Germanium silicate (GeSi) heterostructure internal photoemission detectors, gallium antimony (GaSb) detectors, gallium nitride (GaN) detectors for ultaviolet

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR (UV) detection, and carbon nanotube arrays are other detectors that are in various stages of research and development for possible future applications and use. These were discussed in Science and Technology for Army Homeland Security: Report 1 (NRC, 2003). While emergency responders do not generally need the stringent capabilities of Army technology in this area, IR and thermal capability is of importance for firefighters as well as for perimeter defense and networked sensors. Again, while they may not have a need for solar blind optical detectors, UV semiconductor lasers and detectors currently being developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) solar blind UV detector programs as well as the Army’s in-house and extramural research efforts will be useful for chemical and biological detection spectroscopy. Nuclear, Radiological, and Explosive Threat Detection. The technical area relating to nuclear and radiological threat detection was discussed in Report 1 (NRC, 2003). The major conclusion of the committee was that for nuclear and radiological materials, the detection range of existing technologies and those under development was not long, and hence there were difficulties with standoff detection from any large distance. It was also pointed out in Report 1 that the lead responsibility for this area did not reside with the Army. However, the additional point was made that networked sensors and data fusion and management were critical Army areas of S&T investment and hence could have a strong impact in this area for emergency responders as well. For conventional explosives detection the situation is a little different. Report 1 discusses the different detection technologies and the challenges for these technologies owing to the low vapor pressure of more modern explosives. Again, Report 1 discusses the gains that could perhaps be made in looking at crosscutting technologies in addressing this problem. Furthermore some of the technologies for chemical and biological detection cross over very effectively into explosives detection as noted in the first report (NRC, 2003). Chemical and Biological Agent Technologies. Chemical and biological agent detection technologies were also discussed in Report 1 (NRC, 2003). In the S&T arena, many sensors are in the preliminary research and development cycle. While the Army is the lead agency in this arena, the Joint Program Office, with a funding stream from the Office of the Secretary of Defense, is tasked with this responsibility. The vapor pressure of chemical agents is higher than that of explosives, but the acceptable exposure levels are lower, as was discussed in Report 1. Tables 2-2 and 2-3 in Report 1 list the different technologies that are in use and in various stages of research and development for detecting chemical and biological agents, respectively (NRC, 2003, pp. 50-53). The technologies relevant for this area overlap with those for detecting some other threats, especially conventional explosives. Hence, as discussed in the first report, crosscutting technologies may

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR be very important here and may be candidates for collaborative research with the DHS (NRC, 2003). Sensor Networking and Perimeter Sensors. The Army and other agencies have been pursuing the concept of networked sensors for several years, for use in both tactical situations and perimeter security. The general concept behind networked sensors is the ability to use disparate sensors, such as acoustic and seismic, non-imaging IR and laser, and visible and IR imaging, to develop a comprehensive situational awareness of an environment. Several schemes are available, with some currently focusing on the use of low-cost, low-power-consumption sensors such as seismic and acoustic and non-imaging IR and laser sensors to turn on the higher-cost, higher-power-consumption visible and IR sensors, generate an image or series of images, and then either send the images or processed information back to a central node or place them on a network for dissemination to users. Systems may include automatic alarms to indicate to the user if there is a disturbance in his or her area of operations. Several ongoing programs, described below, are taking this concept even farther, to include a moving infrastructure. In August 2003, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers devoted a special issue to the topic Sensor Networks and Applications.2 The issue contains nine papers, seven of which are invited. Eight of the nine papers describe work sponsored by DARPA. Many defense-related and homeland security applications are cited. The issue provides excellent coverage and is very up to date on the subject of sensor networks. Synthetic Aperture Radar and Moving Target Indicator Technologies. The DOD has extensive programs in both synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and moving target indicator (MTI) technologies. The Army in particular has programs in small-scale, unmanned aerial vehicle-based systems for use at the tactical level that are also appropriate for homeland security purposes. The systems are expensive, however, and a trained force is required to maintain, operate, and interpret the data resulting from these radars. Thus, most nonmilitary crisis response organizations would not be sufficiently funded or staffed to have SAR/MTI radars as part of their organic equipment. SAR/MTI technologies are the type of capabilities that the DOD can bring to bear in support of emergency response during threats to homeland security. The interpreted output of the radars could then be integrated into the command-and-control network to give information to crisis managers. It is the product of the SAR/MTI, rather than the equipment itself, that is of value to homeland security crisis managers. The primary benefit of a SAR is its all-weather capability. While a flying 2   Proceedings of the IEEE, Volume 91, Issue 8, August 2003.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR video camera is the cheapest and easiest way to see a swath of ground, it is of no value at night, in cloudy weather, or when obscured by smoke from fires at a crisis location. Currently available SARs can provide images with less than 1-foot resolution, which is adequate to give a picture of damage to facilities and the locations of vehicles and personnel (at the time of the image). Since the image requires time to process, only snapshots are available. The current SAR limitations are the latency in image processing and the lack of ability to see through foliage or inside structures. (Foliage penetration, or FOPEN, capability is about a decade away.) The primary benefit of the MTI radar is its ability to track objects on the move. Military applications of this radar are to see which roads are being used for enemy attack or withdrawal; homeland security applications are to see which roads are blocked for access by responders or for the evacuation of personnel in dangerous areas such as in the path of a hurricane or a chemical attack cloud. The MTI radar also functions through adverse weather and obscurants. Additional Department of Defense Assets for Consideration The committee also calls attention to other programs and activities that, although not strictly within the C4ISR envelope of programs, may be of value to the emergency responder community. Several of these programs and activities are addressed below. Table 4-5 presents information on the relevant technologies related to other DOD assets, including a brief description or statement of purpose and availability assessment. TABLE 4-5 Summary of Programs Relevant to Emergency Responders: Other Assets for Consideration Program Description Availabilitya Joint Virtual Battlespace (Army S&T) Integrate common simulation environment and Army/joint simulations of varying fidelity with dynamic command-and-control and data flows that span the full battlefield spectrum from joint task force to entity level. This simulation environment will support engineering trade-off studies on the impact of information; information systems (sensors, communications, decision aids); and new tactics, techniques, and procedures (U.S. Army, 2003). N Effects of Weapons Simulation (Defense Threat Reduction Agency S&T) Develop a chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high explosive toolbox for simulation-based analysis and training. It will include (1) simulations for weapons effects, nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) environments, NBC defense, and command-and-control operations; and (2) high-fidelity, physics-based models and databases of N

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Program Description Availabilitya   targets, weapons, and after-strike effects that support the real-time/near-real-time viewing of the effects of weapons in a simulated environment. This simulation technology will also support the real-time visualization of the battlefield during exercises and live operations.b   Flexible Asymmetric Simulation Toolkit (Defense Modeling and Simulation Office [DMSO] and U.S. Air Force S&T) Develop a suite of warfighter-oriented tools for supporting decision making, mission planning, training, course-of-action analysis (to include tactics, techniques, and procedures), and mission rehearsal for operations other than war. It will provide capability to model movements of supplies, displaced personnel, supporting forces, and so on.b N Joint Conflict and Tactical Simulation (JCATS)—Laser Project (DMSO S&T) Use laser-sensor technology to rapidly map complex terrain, including “rubble-ized” urban terrain, into a simulation (JCATS) for analysis.c N Dynamic Mission Readiness Training for C4ISR (Army and Air Force S&T) Develop technology to improve planning, execution, and training by exploiting advanced training methods, mission rehearsal capabilities, and automated performance measurement and assessment technologies. Common training and mission rehearsal architectures will also be developed for distributed training, team training, and distributed team training including brief/debrief capabilities for pre-mission planning and post-mission assessment.b N Chemical and Biological Hazard Environment Prediction (Office of the Secretary of Defense S&T) Develop an improved capability to predict the behavior of chemical and biological agents in the environment. It will address the physical and biological processes that affect chemical and biological agents after they have been released into the environment. These processes include transport, diffusion, deposition, evaporation, biological decay, and re-aerosolization.b N aAvailability: R, ready (TRL 8-9); N, near term (TRL 4-7); F, far term (TRL 1-3). See Appendix G in this report for descriptions of technology readiness levels (TRLs). bSelected information provided by the Office of the Director, Defense Research and Engineering, December 4, 2003. cPersonal communication between S.K. Numrich, Deputy Director for Technology, Defense Modeling and Simulation Office, and Albert A. Sciarretta, committee member, September 9, 2003.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Modeling and Simulation The DOD has made a significant investment in modeling and simulation (M&S), which can be leveraged by the DHS. M&S tools can support the activities discussed below. Planning. Before an event, M&S tools can be used to assess operational and support requirements, the long-term impact of a particular type of event (e.g., the release of a weapon of mass destruction), the displacement of personnel because of a crisis, and other related issues. Organizations such as the Army’s Center for Army Analysis consistently use M&S tools to support combatant commands in planning their operational and logistical needs. The Army’s Joint Virtual Battlespace Program can also be leveraged for these planning efforts. Planning tools for operations other than war (e.g., the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office/ Army Flexible Asymmetric Simulation Toolkit) can be used for planning the movement of displaced personnel, the distribution of food and water, and support for personnel needs. Many of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency’s tools can be used for assessing the effects of WMD. Decision Support. Once an event has occurred, M&S tools similar to those mentioned above can be used for assisting the command element in making immediate decisions. M&S tools can enhance situation awareness—allowing a command element to better understand an environment that is sometimes defined by reams of data from many information and sensor systems. If linked to real-world sensor data and other relevant sources of information, these M&S tools can also support real-time predictions of chemical or biological cloud dispersion, traffic congestion, and so on. Training. Training in the future will become ever more dependent on M&S because real-world and political considerations will make training more difficult. For example, large training exercises cannot be held in Washington, D.C., without taking many personnel away from their required jobs, without keeping large numbers of tourists out of the area, and without bringing media exposure to every success and failure of the event. Also, environmental considerations limit the types of training, as well as the availability of training areas. The costs of real-world training being higher, the ability to do some virtual training could lead to substantial cost savings. The inability of most emergency responders to attend training off-site will place even greater emphasis on M&S that can be used at responders’ places of duty. Most importantly, and of increasing note, many ongoing security and operational missions are drastically reducing the time available for personnel to train. M&S can help hone skills in an embedded (or desktop) training environment, or through the use of the DOD’s and the Army’s Advanced Distributed Learning programs.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR Testing The Army, as well as other components of the DOD, has significant test range capacity and a system for testing equipment to ensure that it meets users’ needs and manufacturers’ claims. The testing includes both operational or performance testing and maintenance and logistics support testing. The Army has also developed, over many years, a testing methodology that allows the user to determine whether the equipment meets the full performance requirements promised—including reliability and maintainability. This could be of particular importance to local emergency responders, as the true cost of much of the equipment that they need is in the maintainability and repairs over a number of years. Logistics Critical to any successful system for use by either the military or emergency responders is a logistics and maintenance capability. Usually incorporated during system development, provision for logistics and maintenance supports the sustainability of an item of equipment for many years, ensuring that the equipment can be serviced, repaired as necessary, replaced, and disposed of at the end of its life cycle. It helps the user to determine the true life-cycle cost of equipment, what level of repairs are necessary (such as operator repair versus depot repair), and even disposal cost. It also helps assure the buyer that parts will be available for the foreseeable future and that equipment will not become obsolete owing to a future lack of such parts. The Army has many years of experience in this area, usually resident in its logistical and commodities centers. Power Generation Today’s Army is making a significant effort to develop lighter, higher-energy-density hybrid power sources, chargers, and power management technologies for soldier systems; reformed logistic fuel components for fuel cells for vehicle-silent watch power; and fuel-efficient power generation and electronic control component technologies to provide for smaller, lighter, more-fuel-efficient mobile electric power generators. These new power systems would be of significant value to emergency responders. A report in preparation from the Board on Army Science and Technology concerning portable energy sources for the soldier sheds light on the actual progress being made in these areas (NRC, 2004). SUMMARY In this chapter the committee identifies some of the critical technical issues associated with a C4ISR system, highlighting several programs that may be of relevance to those developing such systems for use by emergency responders.

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Army Science and Technology for Homeland Security: Report 2 - C4ISR There is no attempt here to evaluate how well these programs are meeting their technical goals. However, where appropriate the committee expresses concerns about these technical objectives—particularly when they seem to be extremely difficult to achieve. The committee sincerely hopes that those who start down the path toward developing systems for emergency responders similar to those developed for the Army can at a minimum absorb some of the lessons learned from these prior endeavors and in some cases actually use the products of these programs. REFERENCES AITS-JPO (Advanced Information Technology Services–Joint Program Office). 2003. CINC 21. Available online at <http://www.les.disa.mil/cinc21.html>. Accessed November 19, 2003. DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency). Undated. Network Embedded Systems Technology. Available online at <http://dtsn.darpa.mil/ixo/programdetail.asp?progid=42>. Accessed October 22, 2003. DOD (Department of Defense). 2003. Joint Blue Force Situational Awareness. Available online at <http://www.acq.osd.mil/actd/desctript.htm>. Accessed October 22, 2003. Ericsson. 2001. Ericsson Response MiniGSM. Available online at <http://www.cs.berkeley.edu/~brewer/ict4b/Ericsson-miniGSM.PDF>. Accessed February 23, 2004. JROC (Joint Requirements Oversight Council). 2003. Waveform Extract, Version A, Joint Tactical Radio System, Extract of JROC Approved Final with Waveform Table 4-2 and Annex E, Operational Requirements Document version 3.2, April 28. Washington, D.C: Joint Requirements Oversight Council. NRC (National Research Council). 1997. The Evolution of Untethered Communications. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. NRC. 2003. Science and Technology for Army Homeland Security: Report 1. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2004. Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, in press. Steinheider, J. 2003. Software-defined radio comes of age. February 11. Available online at <http://iwce-mrt.com/ar/radio_softwaredefined_radio_comes/>. Accessed December 16, 2003. U.S. Army. Undated. Urban Recon ACTD, Airborne and Terrestrial 3-D Laser Imaging. Available online at <https://peoiewswebinfo.monmouth.army.mil/JPSD/UrbanRecon/Urban%20Recon%20Fact%20Sheet%20FINAL%2013MAY03.htm>. Accessed October 22, 2003. U.S. Army. 2003. Weapon Systems 2003. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.