Meeting the Energy Needs of FUTURE WARRIORS

Committee on Soldier Power/Energy Systems

Board on Army Science and Technology

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu



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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors Meeting the Energy Needs of FUTURE WARRIORS Committee on Soldier Power/Energy Systems Board on Army Science and Technology Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. DAAD19-03-C-0046, between the National Academy of Sciences and the Department of the Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09261-2 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-53344-9 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors COMMITTEE ON SOLDIER POWER/ENERGY SYSTEMS PATRICK F. FLYNN, NAE, Chair, Cummins Engine Company, Inc. (retired), Columbus, Indiana MILLARD F. ROSE, Vice Chair, Radiance Technologies, Huntsville, Alabama ROBERT W. BRODERSEN, NAE, University of California at Berkeley ELTON J. CAIRNS, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California HUK YUK CHEH, Duracell, Bethel, Connecticut WALTER L. DAVIS, Motorola Corporation, Schaumburg, Illinois ROBERT H. DENNARD, NAE, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, IBM, Yorktown Heights, New York PAUL E. FUNK, U.S. Army (retired), University of Texas at Austin ROBERT J. NOWAK, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (retired), Silver Spring, Maryland JEFFREY A. SCHMIDT, Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation, Boulder, Colorado DANIEL P. SIEWIOREK, NAE, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh KAREN SWIDER LYONS, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C. ENOCH WANG, Central Intelligence Agency, McLean, Virginia DONALD P. WHALEN, U.S. Army (retired), Cypress International, Arlington, Virginia Board on Army Science and Technology Committee Advisor ALAN H. EPSTEIN, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director, Board on Army Science and Technology ROBERT J. LOVE, Study Director DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Research Associate TOMEKA N. GILBERT, Senior Program Assistant

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY JOHN E. MILLER, Chair, Oracle Corporation, Reston, Virginia GEORGE T. SINGLEY III, Vice Chair, Hicks and Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia DAWN A. BONNELL, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia NORVAL L. BROOME, MITRE Corporation (retired), Suffolk, Virginia ROBERT L. CATTOI, Rockwell International (retired), Dallas DARRELL W. COLLIER, Private Consultant, Leander, Texas ALAN H. EPSTEIN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge ROBERT R. EVERETT, MITRE Corporation (retired), New Seabury, Massachusetts PATRICK F. FLYNN, Cummins Engine Company, Inc. (retired), Columbus, Indiana WILLIAM R. GRAHAM, National Security Research, Inc., Arlington, Virginia HENRY J. HATCH, (Army Chief of Engineers, retired) Oakton, Virginia EDWARD J. HAUG, University of Iowa, Iowa City MIRIAM E. JOHN, California Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore DONALD R. KEITH, Cypress International (retired), Alexandria, Virginia CLARENCE W. KITCHENS, Hicks and Associates, Inc., McLean, Virginia ROGER A. KRONE, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems, Philadelphia JOHN W. LYONS, U.S. Army Research Laboratory (retired), Ellicott City, Maryland JOHN H. MOXLEY, Korn/Ferry International, Los Angeles MALCOLM R. O’NEILL, Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, Maryland EDWARD K. REEDY, Georgia Tech Research Institute (retired), Atlanta DENNIS J. REIMER, National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, Oklahoma City WALTER D. SINCOSKIE, Telcordia Technologies, Inc., Morristown, New Jersey WILLIAM R. SWARTOUT, Institute for Creative Technologies, Marina del Rey, California EDWIN L. THOMAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge BARRY M. TROST, Stanford University, Stanford, California JOSEPH J. VERVIER, ENSCO, Inc., Melbourne, Florida Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director WILLIAM E. CAMPBELL, Administrative Officer CHRIS JONES, Financial Associate DEANNA P. SPARGER, Administrative Associate DANIEL E.J. TALMAGE, JR., Research Associate

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors Preface The Army’s future force will continue to be based on highly capable dismounted soldiers. The success of these future warriors will depend on enhanced situational awareness, that is, detailed knowledge of the location and capabilities of both friendly and enemy forces, and on improved access to lethal weapons, including those that might be called upon from supporting forces. To enable the transition to such a future force, the soldiers’ uniforms, weapons systems, sensors, and communication capabilities are all going through a period of revolutionary development. Perhaps the most critical of these new developments are power supply systems to allow the new electronics-based equipment to function effectively for missions up to 72 hours in length. Ensuring adequate power for soldiers on the battlefield is by no means a simple problem; otherwise, the Army would not have asked the National Research Council (NRC) to do this study. It is a multidimensional challenge requiring multidimensional approaches, and the solutions involve a full consideration of power/energy systems, including the energy sources, energy sinks, and energy management. Developers of the original Land Warrior suite of equipment grappled with shortcomings in power as well as the relative immaturity of computer and electronics technologies. Future soldiers, operating in concert as part of a light and mobile force, will depend heavily on networked applications for both situational awareness and access to supporting fires. As a consequence, power for communications-electronics will become the most critical component of warrior capabilities. Each new capability brings with it a claim on existing weight and space to be borne by the dismounted soldier. For the soldier to function effectively, these weight and space assertions must be limited. Key to this management process will be controlling power demand and providing the power and energy systems that place minimal weight and space demands on the soldier. With a vision of the Future Force warrior provided by the Army, as well as the results of previous studies on the subject, the NRC Committee on Soldier Power/Energy Systems was chartered by the Army to review the state of the art and recommend technologies that will support the rapid development of effective power source systems for soldier applications. The committee was also asked to review opportunities and technologies for reducing and managing power use. To accomplish this, the committee members necessarily represented a broad range of technical expertise, from computers, communications, low-power electronics, and multiple areas of energy sources, to military logistics, operations, and training. (See Appendix A for biographies of the committee members.) I would like to express my personal appreciation to the committee members for their helpful and objective participation in reviewing the status of technologies and programs and in recommending directions for future activities. This report is the product of their efforts and consensus. I would also like to express the committee’s appreciation to the NRC staff for the large logistic and administrative effort that was required to complete the report. Patrick F. Flynn Chair, Committee on Soldier Power/Energy Systems

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council (NRC). The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Henry W. Brandhorst, Auburn University, Douglas M. Chapin, MPR Associates, Inc., Bruce S. Dunn, University of California at Los Angeles, David E. Foster, University of Wisconsin, Samuel Fuller, Analog Devices, Gilbert Herrera, Sandia Laboratories, Nguyen Minh, General Electric Hybrid Power Generation Systems, Leon E. Salomon, U.S. Army (retired), Clarence G. Thornton, Army Research Laboratory (retired), and Robert Whalin, Jackson State University. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Alton D. Romig, Jr., Sandia National Laboratories, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   9      Background,   9      Evolution of the Land Warrior,   9      Objective Force Warrior-Advanced Technology Demonstration,   10      Relevant Studies and a Workshop,   10      Statement of Task,   11      Study Approach,   12      Report Organization,   13 2   TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES   14      Assumptions,   14      Figures of Merit,   16      Power Source Solutions,   16      Analysis of Alternatives,   18      20-W Average Power,   22      100-W Average Power,   24      1- to 5-kW Average Power,   25 3   POWER SYSTEM DESIGN   27      Dynamic Power,   27      Hybrid Concepts,   30      Hybrid Analysis for the Soldier System,   31      Applicability of Hybrid Technologies,   32      Battery + Battery Hybrid,   34      System Configuration Choices,   35      Matching Source with Sinks,   36      Modeling Requirements,   36 4   SOLDIER ENERGY SINKS   37      Low-Power Electronics Technology,   37      High-Power Applications,   37      Laser Designators,   37      Microclimate Cooling Systems,   38      Exoskeleton Systems,   38

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors      Battlefield Logistics,   41      Standardization,   41      Operational Considerations,   41      Acquisition Planning,   43      Near-Term Considerations,   43      Long-Term Considerations,   44 5   PROGRESS   46      Objective Force Warrior-Advanced Technology Demonstration,   46      Comparison of OFW Concepts with Land Warrior,   46      Land Warrior Power Improvements,   48      Application of Energy Efficient Technologies to the OFW-ATD Program,   48      Committee Observations on Initial OFW-ATD Concepts,   48      Commercial Trends,   50      Continuation of Moore’s Law,   50      Low-Power Electronics Technology,   50      Changes in Commercial Development Trends,   51      Trends in Commercial Cell Phone Development,   51      Energy Efficiency of Integrated Circuits,   52      Findings,   54      Constraints on Reducing Power,   54      Technology Time Horizon,   54      Life-Cycle Costs,   55      Soldier Communications,   55      Design Approaches,   55      Incentives for Reducing Power,   55 6   FUTURE WARRIOR DESIGN CONCEPTS   56      Low-Power Soldier System,   56      2-W Average with 5-W Peak,   56      System-Level Approach,   57      Power Management and Distribution,   58      Distributed vs. Centralized,   58      Power Management Design Approaches,   59      Impact of Soldier Interaction on Energy Consumption,   62      Interface Design Example,   63      Design Guidelines for Wearability,   64      Findings,   65 7   RECOMMENDATIONS   66      Power Source Technologies,   66      Battery and Fuel-Cell Development,   66      Small Engines,   67      Hybrid Power Systems,   67      Technologies for Target Regimes,   67      Soldier System Electronics,   69      Power for Soldier Communications,   70      Overarching Recommendations,   70      Future Warrior Goal,   71      Determining Energy Needs,   71     REFERENCES   72

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors     APPENDIXES         A   Biographical Sketches of Committee Members   75     B   Committee Meetings and Other Activities   78     C   Measures of Performance   80      Definition of Terms,   80      Comparing Prospective Military Systems,   84      References,   87     D   Source Technologies   88      Batteries,   88      Electrochemical Capacitors,   94      Fuel Cells,   94      Small Engines,   106      Advances in Other Areas,   110      References,   112

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors Figures and Tables FIGURES 2-1   Graph showing the crossover points for battery and fuel cell power systems as functions of available energy and system mass,   18 2-2   24-hr mission at 20-W average power,   20 2-3   72-hr mission at 20-W average power,   20 2-4   24-hr mission at 100-W average power,   21 2-5   72-hr mission at 100-W average power,   21 2-6   System mass versus total energy,   26 3-1   Characteristics of an ideal battery: (a) constant voltage and (b) constant capacity,   28 3-2   Power source efficiency variation with load,   28 3-3   Typical voltage discharge profiles,   29 3-4   Doyle’s Li ion model results for capacity versus average power,   30 3-5   Power profile of a user interaction with a mobile computer,   31 3-6   Soldier power demand for 20-W average, 50-W peak 10 percent of the time,   34 3-7   Performance of hybrid as compared with performance of single components in power load cyclic profile of 9 min, 12 W, and 1 min, 40 W,   35 4-1   Comparison of various means of exoskeletal actuation on the basis of stress/strain product capabilities,   39 4-2   Generalized Ragone plot of different power sources,   40 5-1   Energy and area efficiency of different chips from 1998 to 2002,   53 6-1   System mass of five energy sources producing 2 W average power for 24- and 72-hr missions,   57 C-1   The capacity of a battery changes with the rate of discharge,   81 C-2   Ragone plot comparing the specific energy vs. specific power of various batteries and of an internal combustion engine,   82 C-3   Variation in efficiency parameters of a 20-W-rated DMFC with variations in the load (net power),   84 C-4   The maximum allowable system mass (excluding fuel) for two kinds of energy conversion systems,   86 C-5   The maximum allowable system specific energy for two kinds of energy conversion systems,   87

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors D-1   Schematic cross section of a battery,   90 D-2   Schematic of proton exchange membrane fuel cell,   96 D-3   Mass flow block diagram of a Ball Aerospace PPS-50 50-W hydrogen fuel cell system,   98 D-4   Specific gravimetric hydrogen densities of select compounds,   100 D-5   Schematic of Ball Aerospace 20-W DMFC energy converter,   102 D-6   A DARPA/Ball Aerospace and Technologies operational DMFC-20,   103 D-7   Free piston Stirling engine showing component parts,   109 D-8   Conceptual layout for a 20-W Stirling power system for soldier applications,   110 D-9   1-kW Stirling engine recently purchased by Auburn University,   111 TABLES ES-1   Science and Technology Objectives for the Near Term, Mid-Term, and Far Term, in Three Power Regimes,   3 ES-2   Techniques for Mitigating Energy Issues in Key Land Warrior System Components and Improvements That Could Be Realized,   7 1-1   Consideration of Relevant Technologies in Previous Studies, the Workshop, and the Present Study,   11 2-1   Overview of All Power Source Alternatives,   15 2-2   Devices in 20-W Regime Planned for Objective Force Warrior (OFW)-Advanced Technology Demonstration,   17 2-3   Comparison of Soldier Power/Energy Sources for 20-W Average Power Missions of 24 and 72 Hours,   19 2-4   Comparison of Soldier Power/Energy Sources for 100-W Average Power Missions of 24 and 72 Hours,   19 2-5   Power Source Development Goals for Soldier Systems,   22 3-1   Comparison of Single Battery versus Hybrids for Attributes of Importance in Military Applications,   33 5-1   Comparison of Estimated Power Requirements of Land Warrior System, by Function (All Peak Power),   47 5-2   Comparison of Estimated Peak and Average Power and Their Ratios for Land Warrior Systems,   47 5-3   Description of Chips Used in the Analysis,   53 6-1   Techniques for Mitigating Energy Issues in Key Land Warrior System Components and Improvements That Could Be Realized,   58 6-2   Advantages and Disadvantages of Centralized and Distributed Power Distribution for Use by the Dismounted Soldier,   59 6-3   Subsystems in Objective Force Warrior with Estimated Duty Cycle of 0.98 W,   60 6-4   Subsystems in Stryker with Average/Peak Active Power Ration Greater Than 0.50 W,   60 6-5   Computational Requirements to Support Different Forms of User Interfaces,   62 6-6   Sample Attributes of User Interfaces,   62 6-7   Interactions Between User Interface and Data Types with Respect to Energy Required for Computing and Data Transmission,   63 6-8   Design-for-Wearability Attributes for Computers,   64

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors 7-1   Science and Technology Objectives for the Near Term, Mid-Term, and Far Term, in Three Power Regimes,   68 7-2   Techniques for Mitigating Energy Issues in Key Land Warrior System Components and Improvements That Could Be Realized,   70 C-1   Criteria for Technology Readiness Levels,   85 C-2   Energy and Total System Weights for 24-Hour Missions,   86 C-3   Energy and Total System Weights for 72-Hour Missions,   86 D-1   Overview of All Power Source Alternatives,   89 D-2   Attributes of Advanced Primary Batteries,   91 D-3   Attributes of Leading Secondary Batteries,   91 D-4   Attributes of Metal/Air and Carbon/Air Batteries,   93 D-5   Overall Comparison of Electrochemical Capacitor and Battery Characteristics,   95 D-6   Attributes of Electrochemical Capacitors,   95 D-7   Attributes of Fuel Cells for Portable Power,   96 D-8   Specific Energy and Energy Density of Various Fuels,   97 D-9   Dependence of Select Hydrogen Sources on Fuel Cell Resources,   99 D-10   Characteristics of Butane-Fueled 20-W Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System by Adaptive Materials, Inc.: Breadboard Versus Projected Attributes,   106

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors Acronyms and Abbreviations ACRONYMS AMTEC alkali metal thermal to electrical conversion ARL Army Research Laboratory ASB Army Science Board ASIC application-specific integrated circuit ATD advanced technology demonstration BOP balance-of-plant CECOM Communications-Electronics Command CMOS complementary metal-oxide semiconductor CO carbon monoxide COTS commercial off-the-shelf CPOX catalytic partial oxidation CPU central processing unit DARPA Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DMFC direct methanol fuel cell DOD U.S. Department of Defense DOE U.S. Department of Energy DRAM dynamic random access memory DSP digital signal processing EC electrochemical capacitor EOD end of discharge FPGA field programmable gate array GPS Global Positioning System HHV higher heating value HIA high integration actuator HMMWV high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle HPC high performance computing HUD heads-up displays

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors IC internal combustion IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IP Internet Protocol JP jet propellant JTRS Joint Tactical Radio System LHV lower heating value LLNL Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LTI lead technology integrator LW Land Warrior LW-AC Land Warrior-Advanced Capability LW-SI Land Warrior-Stryker Interoperable MBITR multiband intra/inter team radio MCC microclimate cooling MEA membrane electrode assembly MEMS microelectromechanical systems MIMO multiple-input, multiple-output MURI Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NRC National Research Council NTRS National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors OCV open circuit voltage OFW Objective Force Warrior (aka Future Force Warrior) PAN primary area network PC personal computer PEM proton exchange membrane PEMFC proton exchange membrane fuel cell PEO Program Executive Office PMMEP Project Manager Mobile Electric Power R&D research and development RF radio frequency S&T science and technology SI Stryker Interoperable SIA Semiconductor Industry Association SOA state of the art SoC system-on-a-chip SOF special operations forces SOFC solid oxide fuel cell SRAM static random access memory TE thermoelectrics TPV thermophotovoltaics TRADOC Training and Doctrine Command TRL technology readiness level UAW universal access workstation UWB ultrawideband

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors VGA video graphics array VTB virtual testbed WLAN wireless local area network YSZ yttria-stabilized zirconia ABBREVIATIONS μm micrometer A ampere Ah ampere-hour Al/air aluminum/air C coulomb C/air carbon/air cc cubic centimeter Cd/NiOOH cadmium/nickel (CF)x carbon monofluoride dB decibel g gram GHz gigahertz hp horsepower I current J joule kg kilogram kJ kilojoule kW kilowatt kWh kilowatt-hour L liter Li lithium Li/air lithium/air Li/(CF)x lithium/carbon monofluoride cell LiCoO2 lithium cobalt oxide LiFePO4 lithium iron phosphate Li/MnO2 lithium/manganese dioxide LiMn2O4 lithium manganese oxide LiNiO2 lithium nickel oxide Li/S lithium/sulfur Li/SO2 lithium/sulfur dioxide MeOH methanol Mg magnesium MH/NiOOH nickel/metal hydride

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Meeting the Energy Needs of Future Warriors MHz megahertz MIPS million instructions per second mJ millijoule MKS meter-kilogram-second mol mole MOPS million operations per second mW milliwatt NaBH4 sodium borohydride nm nanometer ppm parts per million psi pounds per square inch PvdF polyvinylidene fluoride V volt W watt W/cc watts per cubic centimeter W/g watts per gram Wh watt-hour Wh/cc watt hours per cubic centimeter W/kg watts per kilogram W/L watts per liter Zn/air zinc/air