and selected technologies with the greatest potential in each regime. (See Recommendations 6 through 8.) It also developed S&T objectives for the Army consistent with these recommendations, as shown in Table ES-1 for the near term (2010), medium term (2015), and far term (beyond 2015). Table ES-1 also indicates the relative risk (low, medium, or high) associated with each objective. Technologies considered as viable alternatives had to have demonstrated a level of technology readiness that would enable the committee to estimate its performance in a power/energy source system. Because of this, the Army will need to conduct detailed trade studies (specific energy vs. logistics, signature, cost, and so forth) to confirm that particular power source solutions are suited for particular applications.

TABLE ES-1 Science and Technology Objectives for the Near Term, Mid-Term, and Far Term, in Three Power Regimes

Power Regime

Near Term (3 to 5 years)

Mid-term (5 to 10 years)

Far Term (beyond 10 years)

20 W average power

Develop batteries for the 24-hr mission with specific energies >300 Wh/kg.

Develop rapid start-up, compact solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) systems operating on low-sulfur logistics fuel or surrogates.

Develop high-specific-energy, air-breathing battery system hybrids.


Develop smart hybrid systems with high-energy and high-power batteries and/or electrochemical capacitors.

Develop complete small internal combustion and Stirling engine systems with low signatures operating on JP-8 or diesel fuels.

Develop microelectromechanical system components for power technologies.


Develop generic modeling capabilities.


Develop SOFC systems that operate directly on high-sulfur and polyaromatic fuels.


Develop efficient balance-of-plant components for small fuel cell systems.




Develop small fuel processors for logistics fuel, methanol, ammonia, and other viable fuels.




Develop and field-test direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) hybrid systems.




Develop and field-test proton exchange membrane/hydrogen (PEM/H2) systems.




Conduct battlefield-relevant safety testing of alternatives (H2, MeOH, ammonia, JP-8, and Li batteries).



100 W average power

Develop smart hybrid systems with small engines and fuel cells.

Develop small engines. Validate performance scaling laws. Assess reliability, failure modes.

Develop high-specific-energy, air-breathing batteries.


Develop portable fuel processors for logistics fuel.

Develop SOFCs.



Evaluate DMFC and PEM systems for various specific missions.



1 to 5 kW average power

Develop lightweight, efficient, 1- to 5-kW engines that operate on logistics fuel.

Integrate logistics fuel reformers with lightweight PEM fuel cells.

Develop high-capacity SOFCs and integrate them with logistics fuel reformers.


Develop lightweight logistics fuel reformers.



KEY: Relative risk: Low,; Medium, ; High, .

NOTES: MeOH, methanol; JP-8, jet propellant 8; Li, lithium.

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