TABLE D-2 Attributes of Advanced Primary Batteries

 

Chemistry

Attribute

Lithium Sulfur Dioxide (Li/SO2)

Lithium Manganese Dioxide (Li/MnO2)

Lithium Carbon Monofluoride (Li/(CF)x)

Discharge reaction

2Li + 2SO2 → Li2S2O4

xLi + MnIVO2 → LixMnIIIO2

xLi + (CF)xxLiF + C

Theoretical voltage (V)

3.10

3.50

4.50

Working voltage (V)

2.95

3.30

3.50

Energy density (Wh/L)a

385

480-510

1,040

Specific energy (Wh/kg)a

210

210-250

600

Power density (W/L)

<180

<230

<23

Specific power (W/kg)

<100

<100

<14

Shelf life

 

5 yr

>10 yr

Reference

SAFT LI26SX

Duracell 2/3A

Eagle-Picher LCF-112

Cell capacity (Ah)

7.5

1.4

39.4

aThe energy density and specific energy values are based on density and specific power values, respectively.

TABLE D-3 Attributes of Leading Secondary Batteries

 

Chemistry

Attribute

Lithium Ion

Nickel Metal Hydride (MH/NiOOH)

Lithium/Sulfur

Negative electric discharge

LiC6 = Li+ + C6 + e

MH + OH = M + H2O + e

Li = Li+ + e

Positive electric discharge

Li12CoO2 + 12Li+ + 12e = LiCoO2

NiOOH + H2O + e = Ni(OH)2 + OH

Sx + 2e = Sx=

Overall reaction

LiC6 + 2Li12CoO2 = C6 + 2LiCoO2

MH + NiOOH = Ni(OH)2 + M

2Li + Sx = Li2Sx

Theoretical voltage (V)

~4.2

1.2

2.1

Working voltage (V)

3.6

1.0

1.8

Cost (initial, $/Wh)

~10

~3

~0.25

Energy density (Wh/L)a

450-490

220

225

Specific energy (Wh/kg)a

160-175

63-75

170

Power density (W/L)

<570

850

50

Specific power (W/kg)

<200

220

50

Life cycles

300-1,000

600-12,000

300-650

Environment (°C)

−20 to +60°C

−30 to +65°C

+25 to +60°C

Reference

Sanyo 18650

Linden and Reddy (2002)

Polyplus 1 Ah cells

aThe energy density and specific energy values are based on the power density and specific power values, respectively.

high specific energy at low to medium powers. In comparison with Li/MnO2, the main disadvantages of Li/(CF)x are low power capability and high cost.

Secondary Batteries

Secondary batteries can be recharged. There are numerous commercially available secondary batteries that are used commercially, such as lead-acid, silver-zinc, and metal-hydride systems. This appendix describes systems that have advanced technologically since 1997, including Li ion and Li polymer chemistries, nickel metal hydride, and lithium sulfur. Attributes of these batteries are summarized in Table D-3.

Li ion batteries encompass several different chemistries, including LiCoO2, LiNiO2, and LiMn2O4 positive electrodes. The Li ion cell was introduced commercially in the early 1990s by the Sony Corporation.4 It has the advantages of high cell voltage (~3.6 V), high specific energy (>100 Wh/ kg), and long cycle life (~1,000 deep cycles). Li ion batteries’ power and energy characteristics are summarized in Table D-3. Li ion batteries quickly captured the market for camcorders, cell phones, and notebook computers in spite of their high cost, and small cells of cylindrical and prismatic form are being manufactured at the rate of close to a billion cells per year.

The cells can be recharged because the active materials can accommodate the movement of Li atoms (and electrons)

4  

Found at http://www.sanyo.com/industrial/batteries/. Last accessed on January 28, 2004.



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