On behalf of the National Academies, we express our appreciation and recognition for the insights, experiences, and perspectives made available by the participants in the symposium. We particularly appreciate that Congressman Bartlett, who brought his personal experience as an entrepreneur and as a leading Congressional advocate for small business, was present to open the proceedings. We are also very much in debt to officials from the leading departments, including Charles Holland of the Department of Defense, Joseph Bordogna of the National Science Foundation, Milton Johnson and Robert Berger of the Department of Energy, Robert Norwood and Carl Ray of NASA, and Jo Anne Goodnight of the National Institutes of Health. Appendix B of this volume provides a full list of participants.

A number of individuals deserve recognition for their contributions to the preparation of the conference and this report. These include Alan Anderson, Sujai Shivakumar, Christopher Hayter, David Dierksheide, and Tabitha Benney. Special thanks are due to Sujai Shivakumar for his many contributions to the Introduction and to the review process. Without their collective efforts, amidst many other competing priorities, it would not have been possible to prepare this report.


This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity and evidence. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process.

We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Irwin Feller, Pennsylvania State University; Thomas Pelsoci, Delta Research, Inc.; Lori Perine, Interpretech; Todd Stewart, Ohio State University; and Richard Wright, National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report, nor did they see the final draft before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Mark Myers, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

Jacques S. Gansler

Charles W. Wessner

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