continued, restructured, or phased out; or look at the potential for co-funding research with other federal programs.

The report focuses on nonfederal funding sources and mechanisms and their potential effects on the program if adopted. The committee identified many potential nonfederal sources but concluded that the prospects for augmenting CDMRP funding from these sources are modest, at best, especially regarding “new” funds that would not otherwise be devoted to biomedical research. Voluntary collaborations can, however, leverage research results that cannot be achieved by individual funders working separately, for example, through the creation of synergies, critical mass, economies of scale, and other ways that make the whole greater than the sum of its parts.

The committee found numerous examples of federal agencies leveraging nonfederal funds. One common approach is to require cost sharing or matching by grantees; another is to encourage voluntary public-private collaborations between government and other donors or between university grantees and industry. However, substantial cost sharing or matching is costly for grantees to secure and document and for the granting agency to oversee, while successful public-private funding collaborations depend on an alignment of interests among the contributing parties to carry out a particular project or program, which most commonly occurs with clinical research or research directed at the development of products (e.g., diagnostics, drugs, vaccines, devices).

CDMRP has the authority to require cost sharing by grant recipients (which it exercises by requiring awardee institutions to provide the facilities and equipment for conducting research projects and the faculty for training programs), but the program lacks the authority to accept private funds and a foundation would need to be established to solicit private funds for collaborative projects. The committee developed recommendations for CDMRP to facilitate federal funding that emphasize voluntary collaborations in funding research and that focus on providing CDMRP with the authority to engage in jointly funded projects and programs while ensuring that the best features of the current program are not undermined.


Sources of potential additional funding for medical research supported by DOD include for-profit companies, venture capital firms, foundations and other philanthropies, and state governments. Because CDMRP already collaborates and co-funds projects with other federal agencies, most notably the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the committee was asked to focus on nonfederal sources.

Approximately 10 percent of pharmaceutical industry expenditures on research and development (R&D) goes to basic research. Thus, industry spends a great deal of money on biomedical research, but little on the types of activities

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