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Iodotrifluoromethane: Toxicity Review
Pollution Prevention Support Office of the Army Materiel Command in 1993. Since no toxicity data for CF3I were available at that time, a battery of tests were recommended to characterize toxicity. In 1999, CHPPM published a Toxicity Review of CF3I that presented a critical discussion of much of the new data. In this 2002 update, the current status of CF3I is considered, particularly in regard to defining exposure levels that would be considered acceptable for military use of the agent.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the toxicity of CF3I is relatively low. Available data indicate a potential health hazard exists in the area of cardiac sensitization following acute inhalation exposure to concentrations of CF3I greater than 0.2%. The effect of CF3I on mutagenicity and reproductive parameters is equivocal and may warrant further investigation. Human exposure to CF3I could occur during the manufacturing, transportation, storage, or packaging processes. Accidental releases are also potential sources of exposure in the military setting.
USACHPPM will not endorse the NFPA Standard 2001 (2000) recommendations for “safe” exposure limits to CF3I because these levels were determined using PBPK modeling data based on a LOAEL (0.4%) for cardiac sensitization in the dog that resulted in death of the animal.
RECOMMENDATIONS: Any proposed use of CF3I in army systems at design concentrations greater than 0.2% must conform to EPA Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) guidelines which accept CF3I as a substitute for Halon 1301 in normally unoccupied areas only (Federal Register, 1995). Based on this ruling, any employee that could possibly be in the area must be able to escape within 30 seconds, and the employer must ensure that no unprotected employees enter the area during agent discharge.
In 1987, 23 countries, including the United States, signed an agreement that would reduce the production of ozone depleting substances (ODS). Amendments to this agreement, called the “Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer”, placed controls on the production and consumption of ozone depleting materials, including the fire suppressants Halon 1211 and Halon 1301. These compounds are effective and have acceptable risk when used correctly, but have been identified as