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Append ix C Persons, Groups, and Companies from whom the Committee Obtained or Sought Information In the course of its study, the Committee on Motor Vehicle Emissions obtained and sought out information from a wide range of sources in the United States and abroad. As previously reported (in the Corr~nittee's January 1972 Report), an initial invitation was extended to the public to submit information and comments in September 1971 (this invitation was later published by EPA in the Federal Register: 36 F.R. 23092~. A follow-up invitation was sent by the Committee on June 28, 1972, to 31 individuals and environmental groups known, on the basis of their participation in EPA hearings, to have a special interest in the subject. A copy of this letter appears below, following a listing of those persons, groups, and companies from whom information was ob- :ained during 1972. Aerojet Liquid Rocket Company Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (Houdry Division) Air Quality and Automobile Emissions Conference American Cyanamid Company American Lava Corporation American Motors Corporation American Oil Company American Petroleum Institute Research Section Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versteerkte Kunststoffe Arizona State Department of Health Arvin Company Atlantic-Richfield Aud i NSU Mo torenwerke Austin Too 1 Company Automobile Manufacturers A ssociation Bendix Corporation BICERI, Ltd. - 132 -

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British Leyland Motors Corporation, Ltd. British Railway Technical Center California Air Resources Board Carter Carburetor Company Caterpillar Tractor Company CAV, Joseph Lucas, Ltd. CGE Marcoussis Laboratory Champion Spark Plug Chemische Werke Huels Chrysler Corporation Citroen Clayton Manufacturing Company Compagnie General Electrique Comotor Corning Glass Works Cummins Engine Company, Inc. Curtiss-Wright Corporation Daimler-Benz A.G. Degussa Detroit Diesel Deutsch Automobilgesellschaft Dresser Industries E. I. duPont deNemours & Company Electricity Research Center Electrochemical Society Engelhard Chemical and Minerals Corporation Environmental Protection Agency Erren, Rudolph A. Esso Research and Engineering Ethyl Corporation Fach~erband Kohlechemie und Petrochemie Fiat, S.p.A. Ford Motor Company Garrett AiResearch - 133 -

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General Electric Corporation Genera 1 Motors Corpora tion Gould, Inc. Gulf Research and Development Company Hamming and Dickinson Halley Carburetor Honda Motor Company, Ltd. Humble Oil Company Imperial Chemical Industries Institute fur Kunststoff VerArbeitung International Harvester, Inc. International Materials Corporation Isuzu Motors, Ltd. Japan Catalytic Chemical Company Jersey-Alsthom Jersey Enterprises Johnson-Matthey, Ltd. Kali-Chemie Kinergetics, Inc. . Kinetics Corporation Krauss-Maffei A.G. Lear Motors Linde A.G. M.A.N. (Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nuernberg, A.G.) Matthey-Bishop Mazda Dealerships McCulloch Corporation Mercedes Dealerships MERDC Messerschmitt-Boelkow-Blohm G.m.b.H. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation Mobil Oil Company Monsanto Company National Petroleum Refiners Association - 134 -

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New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection New York City Department of Air Resources New York State Department of Motor Vehicles Nissan Motor Company, Ltd NLPG Association Noel Penny Turbines Ltd. Northrop Corporation Oxy-Catalyst, Inc. Paxve Corporation Perkins Engine Company . Petro-Electric Motors, Ltd. Philips Corporation Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Questor Automotive Products Company Ragone, Dr. David (M PS) Renault, Inc. Revom, Inc. Ricardo & Company Engineers, Ltd. Robert Bosch, G.m.b.H. Rolls Royce Motors, Ltd. Scott Research Laboratories Technische Hochschule Aachen Technische Forschungsanstalt & Entwicklungsstelle Texaco Research Laboratories Thermo Electron Company Thermo-Mechanical Systems Company Toyo Kogyo Company Toyota Motor Company, Ltd. TRW Systems Group Corporation Union Oil of California U. S . Army Tank-Automotive Command United Stirling A. B. & Company Universal Oil Products Varta - 135 -

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VEBA Chemie Verein Deutscher Ingenieure VGW-VERBAND der Deutschen Gas und Wasserwerke Vo lkswagen Volvo, Inc. Walker, Professor Joe Wankel Symposium of Society of Manufacturing Engineers Williams Research W. R. Grace & Company Zwick Company Text of Committee Letter of Invitation June 28 1972 seeing lnrormaclon prom rustic and ~nvlronmenca L croups As provided for in Section 202(c) of the Clean Air Amendments of 1970 (PL 91-604) the National Academy of Sciences is currently con- ducting a study and investigation of the technological feasibility of meeting the motor vehicle emissions standards prescribed in Section 202(b) of the law. This study, which is being conducted by our Committee, forms an integral part of the process by which the Environ- mental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator rules upon requests for suspension of the applicable effective dates. Since it commenced its work last year the aim of our Committee has been to secure the widest possible range of information and informed opinion. While we have sought out many sources of such information, we have also encouraged individuals and organizations to submit whatever material or comment they believe is relevant to our inquiry. On Sep- tember 21, 1971, we circulated to several hundred groups, publications, and individuals an invitation to submit their views to the Committee. This invitation also appeared in the Federal Register. As the Committee's study moves ahead we want to renew our invi- tation and extend to you and your organization another opportunity to provide us in writing with such information and comment as you may care - 136 -

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to make with respect to the subject of our study, namely, the techno- logical feasibility of meeting the statutory emissions standards on the schedule contemplated by the Clean Air Amendments. To be somewhat more specific, the Committee is now giving the bulk of its attention to the standards for oxides of nitrogen, for 1976 model-year vehicles. Of particular concern to the Committee are topics such as these: *What modifications can be made to the conventional internal combustion engine that would insure com- pliance with the 1976 standards? Can the requisite equipment be produced in sufficient quantity and on a reliable basis to satisfy assumed.demand by 1976, taking into account design and engineering lead-time? How much confidence can be placed in the ability of such devices to meet the standard, not only at the time of production, but for the full required period of five years or 50,000 miles? Judith one principal approach to meeting the 1976 stan- dard calling for use of reduction catalysts, it is important to evaluate the confidence that can be placed in their durability and continued effectiveness in actual use. Can you supply any data or information relative to catalyst durability while in use on an automobile, other than that which was publicly submitted to EPA in the May 1972 hearings? If catalysts are unlikely to remain effec- tive for the five year - 50,000 mile period, how often will they have to be replaced and at what costs, how will the vehicle owner (or operator) know that his catalyst has lost its effectiveness, and how can the public be assured that ineffective catalysts are promptly replaced or re- charged?

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fiche objective of the Clean Air Amendments is to permit the production of vehicles in 1975 and 1976 that will meet the emissions standards for 50,000 miles or five years. Given what is known from durability data and other information, is it feasible to meet this goal without requiring some program of periodic inspection and maintenance? What methods exist to determine whether a vehicle in use meets the applicable emissions standards? If a vehicle is found to be emitting in excess of the allowable limits, is it practical to identify with sufficient precision the cause so as to avoid needless and perhaps costly maintenance? =~Aside from the conventional spark-ignition internal combustion engine, what other power plants could be produced in sufficient quantity by 1976 (or 1977) that would satis fy the 1976 standards? What is known of their costs, operating efficiency, and other character- istics? This listing of topics which are of concern to the Committee is by no means exhaustive. There are many other issues of importance and the Committee is guided solely by a desire to mobilize as much information and opinion as it can as it relates to the matter of technological feasibility of satisfying the motor vehicle standards as prescribed in the 1970 amendments. Consistent with this objective we i nvite you to submit such information or to offer such comments as you consider pertinent to the subject of our inquiry. To be of use to the Committee your submission should be in writing and be received not later than August 4, 1972. All such materials should be sent to: Committee on Motor Vehicle Emissions National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Wa shington, D . C . 20418 Attention: Public Submissions - 138 -

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Although we are sending copies of this letter to a substantial mailing list, we would urge you make this letter of invitation known to any person or group that you believe would be particularly interested in it. We would also suggest you might reprint this letter or portions of it in any newsletter or other publication of your organization. S igned by James E. A . John . - 139 -