the focus of articles in The Economist, Science and The Scientist. Stephan is a frequent presenter at meetings such as The American Economic Association, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Society for the Social Studies of Science. Stephan reviews regularly for the National Science Foundation and a number of academic journals including The American Economic Review, The American Sociological Review, Economic Inquiry, The Journal of Political Economy, and The Journal of Human Resources.

Dr. Stephan has lectured extensively in Europe. She was a visiting scholar at the Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin für Sozialforschung, Berlin, Germany, intermittently during the period 1992-1995.

Nicholas Vonortas

Nick Vonortas is the director of the Center for International Science and Technology Policy and of the Science, Technology and Public Policy graduate program of George Washington University’s Elliott School of International Affairs. He is also an Associate Professor at the Department of Economics. He holds a Ph.D. in Economics from New York University, an M.A. in Economic Development from Leicester University (U.K.), and a B.A. in Economics from the University of Athens.

Professor Vonortas’ teaching and research interests are in industrial organization, the economics of technological change, and science and technology policy. He is currently working on several research topics including technology licensing agreements, strategic partnerships, innovation networks, intellectual property rights protection mechanisms in research collaborations, R&D program evaluation, and the knowledge based economy.

Charles Wessner

Dr. Charles (Chuck) Wessner is recognized as a national and international expert on public private partnerships, early stage financing for new firms, and the special needs and benefits of high technology industry. He regularly testifies to the U.S. Congress and major national commissions, acts as an advisor to agencies of the Executive Branch of the U.S. Government, and lectures at major universities in the U.S and abroad. He is frequently asked to address policy issues of shared international interest with foreign governments, universities, and research institutes. In this capacity, he serves as an advisor to the 30-nation OECD Committee on Science and Technology Policy.

Dr. Wessner’s work focuses on the linkages between science-based economic growth, new technology development, university-industry clusters, regional development, and small firm finance. He has also addressed policy issues associated with international technology cooperation and investment as well as trade in high technology industries.

Dr. Wessner’s work at the National Academies has included a study for the White House on U.S. aerospace competitiveness and a major cooperative review of international competition and cooperation in high-technology industry. Currently, he directs a portfolio of activities centered on government measures to support the development of new technologies and the policies that may be required to continue the productivity gains characteristic of the New Economy.

Specifically, the Academy leadership has given him responsibility for three high-profile studies. A major study, now in its concluding phase, is the first program-based review of Public-Private Partnerships, carried out under the direction of Gordon Moore, Chairman Emeritus of Intel and Bill Spencer, Chairman Emeritus of SEMATECH. The second area of work focuses on the New Economy. The Chairman of the NRC Board on Science, Technology, and Economy Policy, Dale Jorgenson of Harvard University, has charged him with a major research program focused on Measuring and Sustaining the New Economy. In addition, the successful review of the Small Business Innovation Research Program at the Department of Defense led the Congress to task the NRC with a major study, to be led by Dr. Wessner, of this $1.2 billion R&D program at the five agencies responsible for 96 percent of the program’s expenditures. A better understanding of early stage finance for new firms, a key phase in the U.S. innovation system, should improve our ability to capitalize on the nation’s substantial R&D investment.

Dr. Wessner holds degrees in International Affairs from Lafayette College (Phi Beta Kappa) and the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy where he obtained an M.A., an M.A.L.D. and a Ph.D. as a Shell Fellow. He began his career in the Office of the Secretary at the Department of the Treasury, joined the OECD to work on economic development issues, served in the Diplomatic Corps, and directed the Office of International Technology Policy in the Department of Commerce.

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