Index

A

AAO-HNS/AMA, 178

Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB), 205

ABI. See Auditory brainstem implants

ABR. See Auditory brainstem response

Accidents, and hearing loss, 59

ACE. See Advanced Combination Encoders speech encoding algorithms

Acoustic amplification. See Hearing aids

Acoustic assistive listening devices, 159

Acoustic immittance measures, 45, 73, 91–95

acoustic reflex thresholds, 93

otoacoustic emissions, 93–95

tympanometry, 91–92

Acoustic neuroma, 95

Acoustic reflex thresholds, 93

Acoustic trauma, and hearing loss, 61

ADA. See Americans with Disabilities Act

Admittance, peak, norms for, 92

Adults, 27–29

current disability criteria for hearing for, 31–32

etiology of severe to profound hearing loss in, 63–64

procedures for determining disability in, 27–29

SSA decision flow for adults, 28

Advanced Bionics, 149

Clarion, 151–152

Advanced Combination Encoders (ACE) speech encoding algorithms, 151

AEPs. See Auditory evoked potentials

Age

of amplification in hearing aid use, 206–207

of implantation of cochlear implants, 154

of intervention in children with hearing loss, 186

of second language acquisition, 89

Aging, and hearing loss, 59

AI. See Articulation index

Aided testing of auditory function, performance of, 2

Air conduction, 73

ALDs. See Assistive listening devices

Alerting assistive listening devices, 160

Alport’s syndrome, 62

AMA. See American Medical Association

American Academy of Pediatrics, 154, 190, 216

Task Force on Newborn and Infant Hearing, 216

American Board of Audiology, 110

American Board of Otolaryngology, 5, 70, 108



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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Index A AAO-HNS/AMA, 178 Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB), 205 ABI. See Auditory brainstem implants ABR. See Auditory brainstem response Accidents, and hearing loss, 59 ACE. See Advanced Combination Encoders speech encoding algorithms Acoustic amplification. See Hearing aids Acoustic assistive listening devices, 159 Acoustic immittance measures, 45, 73, 91–95 acoustic reflex thresholds, 93 otoacoustic emissions, 93–95 tympanometry, 91–92 Acoustic neuroma, 95 Acoustic reflex thresholds, 93 Acoustic trauma, and hearing loss, 61 ADA. See Americans with Disabilities Act Admittance, peak, norms for, 92 Adults, 27–29 current disability criteria for hearing for, 31–32 etiology of severe to profound hearing loss in, 63–64 procedures for determining disability in, 27–29 SSA decision flow for adults, 28 Advanced Bionics, 149 Clarion, 151–152 Advanced Combination Encoders (ACE) speech encoding algorithms, 151 AEPs. See Auditory evoked potentials Age of amplification in hearing aid use, 206–207 of implantation of cochlear implants, 154 of intervention in children with hearing loss, 186 of second language acquisition, 89 Aging, and hearing loss, 59 AI. See Articulation index Aided testing of auditory function, performance of, 2 Air conduction, 73 ALDs. See Assistive listening devices Alerting assistive listening devices, 160 Alport’s syndrome, 62 AMA. See American Medical Association American Academy of Pediatrics, 154, 190, 216 Task Force on Newborn and Infant Hearing, 216 American Board of Audiology, 110 American Board of Otolaryngology, 5, 70, 108

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits American Medical Association (AMA), 14, 20, 34, 36–37, 66, 116 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards, 5, 13, 16, 31–32, 50, 54, 74, 87–88, 91, 111, 122, 129 American Sign Language, 164, 166 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA), 5, 18, 79, 110, 117, 122, 182–183 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, 33, 165–166, 172 and accommodation, 172 Amikacin, 64 Aminoglycoside antibiotics, 64, 71 Amplified assistive listening devices, 159–160 Amplified telephones, 159 Anatomy of the auditory system, 45 ANSI. See American National Standards Institute standards Antibiotics, aminoglycoside, 64 Antimetabolites, and hearing loss, 64 Anxiety, 65 Apgar scores, 62–63 APHAB. See Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit Appealing SSA decisions, 29 Area (Ar), definition of, 43 Articulation index (AI), 54, 87, 138, 207 improving accuracy of, 123 Articulatory errors, 185 ASHA. See American Speech-Language-Hearing Association Assertiveness, 168 Assessment of ability to identify nonspeech sounds and sound localization, 2 Assessment of hearing disability, handicap, and benefit from interventions, 175–177 appropriate uses of self-assessment instruments, 178 health-related quality of life, 176–177 quality of life, 176 Assessment of the auditory system and its functions, 69–100 assessment of auditory function, 73–100 standard otolaryngological examination, 69–73 Assistive listening devices (ALDs), 140, 159–162, 203 acoustic, 159 alerting, 160 amplified, 159–160 reluctance to utilize, 160 ASSR. See Auditory steady-state response Audibility of hearing aids, 207–208 Audiograms, 13, 49, 96, 222 procedures for, 118–119 Audiological criteria for implantation in adults, of cochlear implants, 152–153 Audiologists, 66, 90, 111–112, 129 clinical, 5, 20 Audiometric diagnostic evaluation, 15, 133, 190–195 auditory brainstem response, 193 auditory steady-state response, 193–194 immittance audiometry, 194–195 otoacoustic emissions, 192–193 protocol for persons not using a hearing aid or cochlear implant, 134–135 protocol for persons using a hearing aid or cochlear implant, 135–136 threshold audiometry, 190–192 Audiometric scores, 185 Audiometry, 65, 112 pure-tone threshold, 74–77 speech, 77–86 Auditory awareness, 205 Auditory brainstem implants (ABI), 159 Auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold, 7, 95–97, 112, 190–192, 193, 214, 221 infant, 97, 189 Auditory cues, speech recognition with, 87–89 Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs), 74, 95–98 infant auditory brainstem response, 97 Auditory feedback, delayed, 99 Auditory function assessment, 73–100 acoustic immittance measures, 91–95 assessment when exaggerated hearing loss suspected, 99–100 auditory evoked potentials, 95–98 listener performance on speech recognition tests, 86–87 multicultural and multilingual issues in evaluation of speech recognition, 89–91 multiple conditions, 100 pure-tone threshold audiometry, 74–77 speech audiometry, 77–86 speech recognition with auditory and visual cues, 87–89

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Auditory nerve, 46–47 Auditory neuropathy, 18, 62–63, 95, 214 Auditory perception, 47–59 sound detection, 48–52 sound discrimination, 52–53 sound identification, 53–55 sound localization, 55–58 sound source determination, 58–59 Auditory prostheses, 202–209 hearing aids, 202–209 “Auditory scene analysis,” 58 Auditory steady-state response (ASSR), 96, 98, 191, 193–194 Auditory system, 44–47 anatomy of, 45 Auditory tasks in the workplace, dimensions and difficulty of, 132–133 Auditory therapy, 213 Australia, 14 Autoimmune inner ear disease, and hearing loss, 61, 64 Autosomal dominant disorders, 62 Average hearing levels, 32 in testing children, 7 Azimuth sound localization, 134–135 overhead view of the listener, 56 B Babbling stages, in children, 181 Background noise, performance of measures of auditory function incorporating, 2, 11 testing speech recognition with noise, 120–124 Bacterial meningitis, 64 Balance tests (optional), 72 Basics of sound, the ear, and hearing, 42–68 auditory perception, 47–59 auditory system, 44–47 causes of hearing loss, 59–64 definitions, 43–44 hyperacusis, 67 introduction to sound, 42–47 tinnitus, 64–67 Beaver Dam (Wisconsin) Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study, 23 Beepers, hearing, 19 Behavioral observation audiometry (BOA), 192 Behavioral tests, of hearing threshold, 1, 191 Behind-the-ear (BTE) model hearing aids, 141, 202–203 Bekesy tracking, 99 Benefit from interventions, assessment of, 175–177 Bilateral implantation, 157 Binaural testing, 136 Binomial probability theorem, 88 Blue Book (of the SSA), 69 BOA. See Behavioral observation audiometry Bone audiometry, 31 Bone conduction audiometry, 115 thresholds, 14, 73 Brainstem response, infant auditory, 97 Branchiootorenal syndrome, 62 Brief case history, recommendations regarding, 113–114 Broadband masking stimulus, 54 testing speech in noise, 121, 128. BTE. See Behind-the-ear models C Calibrated headphones, 48 California, workers’ compensation in, 19–20 California Consonant Test, 86 Canada, 14, 174 Candidacy for cochlear implants, 209 for hearing aids, 142–143 CAPD. See Central auditory processing disorder CapTel, 160 Carboplatin, 71 Carrier sounds, 53 Case histories, recommendations regarding, 113–114 Caseload for hearing impairment, Social Security disability determinations and, 25–27 Causes of hearing loss, 59–64 conductive hearing loss, 59–60 etiology of severe to profound hearing loss, 61–64 sensorineural hearing loss, 60–61 CCC-A. See Certificate of Clinical Competence in Audiology CE. See Consultative examiner

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 154 Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), 188 Central Institute for the Deaf Test W-22 (CID W-22), 81, 83, 155 Cerebellar tests (optional), 72 Certificate of Clinical Competence in Audiology (CCC-A), 110 20 CFR §416.924-926a, 30 20 CFR Part 404, 27, 30 Checklists, 114, 220–221 recommendations regarding, 112–113 in testing adults, 6, 114 in testing children, 8, 220 Cherry, Colin, 58 Chief complaint, in a medical history, 70 Children, 29–30 audiometric diagnostic evaluation for, 190–195 babbling stages in, 181 cochlear implants in, 209–214 communication assessment for, 195–202 current disability criteria for hearing for, 32–33 etiology of severe to profound hearing loss in, 62–63 functional domains considered in determining disability for, 31 grammatical development in, 181–182 hearing loss in, 180–223 procedures for determining disability in, 29–30 recommended tests and criteria for, 214–220 SSA decision flow for, 30 a standard otolaryngological examination for, 73 use of auditory prostheses by, 202–209 Children with hearing loss, 182–186 age at intervention, 186 complicating factors, 185 development of perception, speech production, and language in, 182–186 language skills, 184 speech skills, 183–184 unilateral hearing loss, 185–186 Children with normal hearing, 180–182 development of perception, speech production, and language in, 180–182 language skills, 181–182 speech skills, 181 Cholesteatoma, 60 Chronic otorrhea, 60 CIS. See Completely-in-the-canal model hearing aids CID W-22. See Central Institute for the Deaf Test W-22 Circumaural headphones, 48 CIS. See Continuous interleaved sampling Cisplatin, 64, 71 City University of New York (CUNY) Sentences, 83, 86, 88 Claimants with hearing aids, separate test protocols for, 6–7 without hearing aids, separate test protocols for, 6–7 Clarion, 151–152, 156 Clark, Graeme, 149 Client Oriented Scale of Improvement (COSI), 176 Clinical audiologists, 5 qualifications of, 110 Clinical findings in a standard otolaryngological examination (physical examination), 70–72 balance and cerebellar tests (optional), 72 cranial nerves (optional), 72 head and neck examination, 72 informal observation of communication, 71 otoscopy, 71–72 tuning fork tests (optional), 72 Clinical findings (physical examination), in a standard otolaryngological examination, 71–72 Clinical practices, 148–149 Closed head trauma, 62 Closed-message tests, 86 Closed-set tests, 85–86 CM. See Cochlear microphonic components Cochlea, 46–47 Cochlear Corporation, 149, 151 Cochlear implant communication outcomes in children, 209–214 demographic factors, 211 speech intelligibility and language, 211–214 spoken word recognition, 209–210

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Cochlear implant results, 155–158 bilateral implantation, 157 hybrid (combined acoustic and electrical) stimulation, 157–158 postlingual adult performance, 155–157 Cochlear implants, 127, 129–131, 148–158 age at implantation, 154 audiological criteria for implantation in adults, 152–153 components of, 150 duration of deafness, 155 medical considerations for implantation, 153–154 multichannel, 151, 155, 157 Cochlear implants in children, 209–214 cochlear implant communication outcomes in, 209–214 determining candidacy for, 209 Cochlear microphonic (CM) components, 63 Cochlear otosclerosis, 64 Cocktail party effect, 58 Cogan’s syndrome, 64 Cognitive factors, 20–22, 156, 197 Committee on Disability Determination for Individuals with Hearing Impairment, 1, 11 Common Phrases Test, 201, 218–219 Communication barriers to, 170–171 informal observation of, 71 postimplant abilities, 210 Communication access, 164–165 Communication assessment, 195–202 language tests, 201–202 spoken word recognition, 195–201 Communication outcomes, cochlear implant in children, 209–214 Completely-in-the-canal (CIC) model hearing aids, 141 Complex sound, definition of, 44 Complicating factors, in children with hearing loss, 185 Conductive hearing loss, 59–60 ruling out, 110 Congenital hearing loss, 72 Congenital syphilis, 62 Connected Speech Test (CST), 84 Consultative examiner (CE), 69 Continuous interleaved sampling (CIS), 151, 156 Contralateral routing of signal (CROS), 203–204, 209 Cortical evoked potentials, 99–100 COSI. See Client Oriented Scale of Improvement Cranial nerves testing (optional), 72 Craniofacial anomalies, 62 Criteria for determination of disability, in testing children, 7 Criteria for selecting a speech recognition test for disability determination, 118–123 maximum acceptable test-retest differences, 122 recommendations regarding, 118–123 Criteria for selecting tests for disability determination, recommendations regarding, 109 Critical bands, 51–52 CROS. See Contralateral routing of signal CST. See Connected Speech Test CUNY. See City University of New York Sentences Current disability criteria for hearing, 30–33 criteria for adults, 31–32 criteria for children, 32–33 Current formula, limitations of, 4–5 Current measures, nature of, 13–18 Cutoff scores determined to be significant, 218 Cytomegalovirus, 62 D daPa. See DekaPascals Dartmouth COOP Functional Health Assessment, 177 dB. See Decibel Deaf community, perspectives of, 166–167 Deaf Culture, 166–167, 171 “Deaf mutism,” alleged, 31 Decibel (dB), 4–5, 7, 14, 18, 105 definition of, 43, 44 Degrees of hearing loss, categories of, 76 DekaPascals (daPa), definition of, 44 Delayed auditory feedback, 99 Dementia, 21 Demographic factors, 211 and hearing impairment, 22–24 Depression, 65, 168

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Detecting tones, thresholds of, 49 Development of perception, speech production, and language, 180–186 in children with hearing loss, 182–186 in children with normal hearing, 180–182 Device efficacy and features in children, audibility of hearing aids, 207–208 DI. See Social Security Disability Insurance(SSDI) Diagnosis, in a standard otolaryngological examination, 70, 72–73 Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 29 Digital processing, 142 Dihydrostreptimycin, 64 Direct assessment of performance with assistive devices, 105 of disability, 173–174 Direct measures for toddlers and young children, in hearing aid use, 206 Directional microphones, 208 Disability definitions of, 27, 35–37 models of, 33–34 predicting from clinical tests, 34–40 Disability determination, 172–179 cutoff scores determined to be significant, 218 different perspectives, 172–173 direct assessment, 173–174 indirect assessment, 174–177 pediatric checklist for audiological evaluation for disability determination, 220–221 recommended disability determinations for children who are deaf or hard of-hearing, 215 speech recognition tests for children, 218–219 tests and criteria for children, 214–220 Disability Research Institute, 39 Discomfort and pain, thresholds of, 49 Discontinuity, ossicular, 92 Discrimination, in auditory perception, 14, 52–53 Diseases. See also individual disease conditions and hearing loss, 59 Disequilibrium, 64 Doubly indirect assessment, 175 Duration of deafness, with cochlear implants, 155 E E-mail, 160 Ear canal, 45 Early-intervention programs, 206–207 Early Speech Perception Test-Low Verbal Version (ESP-Low Verbal), 198, 209 Early versus late onset, of hearing loss, 164 Earphones, 74–75 Education and employment, 164–166 Americans with Disabilities Act, 165–166 communication access, 164–165 Effectiveness of sensory aids, prostheses, and assistive devices, 171 Effects of hearing loss on literacy and education, 186–189 Emissions, otoacoustic, 93–95 Emotional problems, 65 Employer attitude, 171 Employment status of adults with hearing loss, 169–170 Energetic masking, 128 English, nonnative speakers of, 21, 89, 107 Epidemiological study, 23 Equipment for testing, recommendations regarding, 111–112 Equivalent volume, norms for, 92 ESP-Low Verbal. See Early Speech Perception Test-Low Verbal Version Etiology of severe to profound hearing loss, 61–64 in adults, 63–64 in children, 62–63 Etymotic Research, Inc., 84 EuroQOL, 177 Exaggerated hearing loss, assessment when suspected, 99–100 F Facial nerve paralysis, 64 False negative (FN) outcomes, 103, 139 False positive (FP) outcomes, 103 Family history, in a medical history, 71 FAPI. See Functional Auditory Performance Indicators FDA. See U.S. Food and Drug Administration Feedback, hearing aid, 145 FICA (Social Security tax program), 25

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Fire alarms, hearing, 19 Fitting hearing aids, and verification of amplification, 204 FM systems, used in hearing aids, 130, 159, 165, 203, 208, 209 FN. See False negative outcomes Force (F), definition of, 43 Form SSA-4734-BK (“Physical Residual Functional Capacity Assessment”), 28 FP. See False positive outcomes Frequency modulation. See FM systems Frequency-specific hearing thresholds, 96 Functional Auditory Performance Indicators (FAPI), 206 Functional domains considered in determining disability for children, 31 Functional hearing requirements of jobs, 174 G Gallaudet Research Institute, 23–24 Gallaudet University, 106 Gaucher’s disease, 62 Genetic hearing loss, 59, 62, 64 Gentamicin, 62 Glasgow Hearing Aid Benefit Profile (GHABP), 176 Grammatical Analysis of Elicited Language, 201 Grammatical development, in children, 181–182 Graphic representation, of pure-tone audiogram, 75 Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment, 19, 34–35, 66 H Hair cell damage, 60, 93–94 Handicap, assessment of, 175–177 Head and neck examination, 72 Head-related transfer function (HRTF), 56–58 Headphones, calibrated, 48 Health-related quality of life (HRQL), 2, 12, 176–177 Hearing aids, 127, 129–131, 141–148, 202–209 audibility of in children, 207–208 behind-the-ear (BTE) models, 141 behind-the-ear (BTE) models, in children, 202–203 candidacy for, 142–143 candidacy for, in children, 203–204 completely-in-the-canal (CIC) models, 141 fitting and verification of amplification, in children, 204 fitting outcomes in adults, 143, 145–146 high-technology, 147 in children, 202–209 in-the-canal (ITC) models, in children, 205 in-the-ear (ITE) models, 141 in-the-ear (ITE) models, in children, 203 outcomes of using, in children, 204–209 problems not solved by, 144–145 research on outcomes, 146–148 selection and adjustment issues, 143–144 signal processing in, 141–142 special features and assistive devices, in children, 203 styles of, in children, 202–203 Hearing-critical tasks and everyday activities, 18–19 work-related, 18–19, 125–126 Hearing disability, assessment of, 175–177 Hearing impairment, 32–33, 64 prevalence and demographics of, 22–24 Hearing in daily life, 164–172 ADA and accommodation, 172 effectiveness of sensory aids, prostheses, and assistive devices, 171 hearing in the workplace, 169–171 impact of hearing loss for adults, 164–166 psychosocial impact of hearing loss, 166–168 Hearing in Noise Test (HINT), 84–85, 123, 153, 218–219 Hearing in Noise Test for Children (HINTC), 200, 209 Hearing in the workplace, 169–171 communication barriers, 170–171

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits employment status of adults with hearing loss, 169–170 prevalence of hearing loss in the workplace, 169 Hearing level (HL), 105 Hearing loss, 11n, 31, 51–55 categories of degrees of, 76 causes of, 59–64 conductive hearing loss, 59–60 congenital, 72 etiology of severe to profound hearing loss, 61–64 performance deficits resulting from, 2–3 psychosocial adjustment and, 167–168 sensorineural hearing loss, 60–61 Hearing loss in children, 180–223 audiometric diagnostic evaluation, 190–195 cochlear implants in children, 209–214 communication assessment, 195–202 development of perception, speech production, and language, 180–186 effects of hearing loss on literacy and education, 186–189 infant hearing screening, 189–190 recommendations, 214–223 use of auditory prostheses, 202–209 Hearing Measurement Scale, 175 Hearing protection, 132 Hearing thresholds, 74, 142 behavioral tests of, 191 frequency-specific, 96 Hereditary disorders, and hearing loss, 59, 61–62, 64 Heredity, and hearing loss, 59 Herpes, 62 Hertz (Hz), definition of, 44 High-probability sentences, 83 High-technology hearing aids, 147 HINT. See Hearing in Noise Test HINT-C. See Hearing in Noise Test for Children HL. See Hearing level House, William, 149 HRQL. Health-related quality of life HRTF. See Head-related transfer function Hughson-Westlake technique, 74 Hybrid (combined acoustic and electrical) stimulation, 157–158 Hyperacusis, 67 Hyperbilirubinemia, and hearing loss, 62 I ICF. See International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health ICIDH. See International Classification of Impairment, Disability, and Handicap Identification, in auditory perception, 53–55 Idiopathic disorders, and hearing loss, 59, 62, 64 Immittance audiometry, in children, 194–195 Immittance measures, acoustic, 91–95 Immune-mediated disorders, and hearing loss, 63–64 Impact of hearing loss for adults, 164–166 early versus late onset, 164 education and employment, 164–166 Impact of hearing loss on daily life and the workplace, 163–179 disability determination, 172–178 hearing in daily life, 164–172 recommendations, 178–179 Impact of hearing loss on quality of life, 2 Impairment, definitions of, 11n, 36–37 IMSPAC, 206 In-the-canal (ITC) model hearing aids, 141, 203 In-the-ear (ITE) model hearing aids, 141, 203 Indirect assessment, 174–177 disability and assessment, 174–177 of hearing disability, handicap, and benefit from interventions, 175–177 Induction coil (T-coil), 145, 159 Infant auditory brainstem response, 97 Infant hearing screening, 189–190 Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS), 199, 205, 209 Infections, and hearing loss, 59, 61, 63 Informal observation of communication, 71 Informational masking, 128 Inner ear, 46 Instant messaging, 160 Intelligibility. See Speech intelligibility Interaural time, 55–56 International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF), 34 International Classification of Impairment, Disability, and Handicap (ICIDH), 33

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits International Organization for Standardization, 19, 101 International Phonetic Alphabet, 21 Interventions, assessment of benefit from, 175–177, 223 Inventories for pediatric hearing outcome measures, in hearing aid use, 205–206 Iowa Sentence Test, 88 IT-MAIS. See Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale ITC. See In-the-canal model hearing aids ITE. See In-the-ear models J Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome, 62 Job taxonomies, 39, 104 Johns Hopkins University, 157 Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, 176 K Kanamycin, 62, 64 Key issues, 11–22 hearing-critical work and everyday activities, 18–19 linguistic, cognitive, and other nonauditory factors, 20–22 nature of current measures, 13–18 prosthetic devices, 19–20 L Laboratory findings, in a standard otolaryngological examination, 70, 72 Language skills in children with hearing loss, 184, 212 in children with normal hearing, 181–182 Language tests, in communication assessment, 201–202 Late cortical response (LCR), 95 Late potentials, 100 LCR. See Late cortical response LDLs. See “Loudness discomfort levels” Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT), 82, 200, 209, 218–219 Lexical retrieval, slowed, 184 LIFE. See Listening Inventories for Education Limitations, of current formula and testing protocol, 4–5 Linguistic factors, 20–22 Listener performance, on speech recognition tests, 86–87 Listening Inventories for Education (LIFE), 205 Literature review, 40, 95 LNT. See Lexical Neighborhood Test Localization, in auditory perception, 55–58 Loud sound exposure, and hearing loss, 59–60 “Loudness discomfort levels” (LDLs), 67 Low-probability sentences, 83 Lupus, systemic, 64 M MAF. See Minimal audible field “Malingering,” 99 MAP. See Minimal audible pressure Marital distress, 168 Masking sounds, 51–54 Masking therapy, 66 Maternal prenatal infections, 62 Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale, 205 Measles, 62 Measures of auditory function incorporating background noise, performance of, 2 Measures of outcomes of hearing aids and features, in hearing aid use, 208 Measures of spoken word recognition for preschool-age children, 198–199 for school-age children, 200–201 Med El, 149, 152 implants from, 151 Medical considerations for implantation, of cochlear implants, 153–154 Medical history in a standard otolaryngological examination, 69–71 chief complaint and present illness, 70 family history, 71 past medical history, 71 review of systems, 71 social history, 71

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Medical listing criteria, 14–16, 18, 24, 38–39, 104, 126, 172 Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36), 177 Meniere’s disease, 61, 64 Meningitis, 62, 64 Mental retardation, 214 Michele deformity, 154 Microphones, directional, 208 Middle ear, 46, 59 dysfunction in, 95 Middle latency response (MLR), 95 Minimal audible field (MAF), 48–49 Minimal audible pressure (MAP), 48–49 MLNT. See Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood Test MLR. See Middle latency response Models of disability, 33–34 Monosyllabic speech discrimination, 17, 80–82, 156 Multichannel cochlear implants, 151, 155, 157 Multicultural and multilingual issues in evaluation of speech recognition, 89–91 speech recognition materials available in languages other than English, 90 Multimodal spoken word recognition, 197–198 Multisyllabic Lexical Neighborhood Test (MLNT), 199–200, 209, 218–219 Mumps, 62, 71 Myoclonic epilepsy, 62 N NAL-NL1 procedure, 144, 207 NALR. See National Acoustics Laboratory Revised procedure NAM. See Neighborhood Activation Model National Academies, 169n National Acoustics Laboratory Revised (NALR) procedure, 143 National Center for Health Statistics, 23 National Family Opinion (NFO) panel, 168 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III), 23 National Health Interview Survey, 19, 22 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 221 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, 61 National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), 23–24, 189, 221 National Institutes of Health, 137, 189, 216, 221 National Research Council (NRC), 1, 11, 24n, 39 National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID), 77, 106, 170 Neck. See Head and neck examination Neighborhood Activation Model (NAM), 199 Neomycin, 64 Nephrotoxicity, 64 “Nerve deafness,” 60 Neural response imaging (NRI), 152 Neural response telemetry (NRT), 152 Neural syphilis, 64 Neurodegenerative diseases, 62 Neurofibromatosis, 62 Type II (NF-2), 159 Neuropathy, auditory, 18 NFO. See National Family Opinion panel NHANES-III. See National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NIDCD. See National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders Niemann-Pick disease, 62 Nitrogen mustard, 64 Noise definition of, 44 exposure to, 113, 117, 170 speech recognition testing in, 105, 119–124, 128–129 Nonauditory factors, 20–22 performance deficits resulting from, 2–3 Nonnative speakers of English, 21, 89, 107 Nonsense Syllable Test, 86–87 Nonspeech sounds, in testing adult hearing, 2, 101–102 Nonverbal IQ, 212–213 Norie’s syndrome, 62 Normal hearing, children with, 180–182 Norms, for peak admittance, tympanometric width, and equivalent volume, 92 Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 (NU6), 81, 88, 107, 120–123, 126–128, 134–136, 139, 155

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Northwestern University-Children’s Perception of Speech Test (NUCHIPS), 198, 218–219 NRC. See National Research Council NRI. See Neural response imaging NRT. See Neural response telemetry NTID. See National Technical Institute for the Deaf NU6. See Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 NU-CHIPS. See Northwestern University Children’s Perception of Speech Test Nucleus CI-22, 155–156 Nucleus CI24M, 151–152 O OAEs. See Otoacoustic emissions Objective (physiological) testing, 1–2, 6, 18n in testing adults, 6 in testing children, 192–195 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), 61, 131 O*Net, 138 Open-set tests, 80–85 monosyllabic words, 80–82 sentence tests, 82–85 Open-set versus closed-set test formats, for spoken word recognition, 196–197 OSHA. See Occupational Safety and Health Administration Ossicular chain, 45–47 increased stiffness of, 60 Ossicular discontinuity, 92 Otitis media, with effusion, 92 Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), 74, 93–95, 189–193, 214 Otolaryngological examination, 31, 70 children, 73 clinical findings (physical examination), 71–72 diagnosis, 72–73 laboratory findings, 72 medical history, 70–71 recommendations regarding, 108–109 standard, 69–73 treatment prescribed with response and prognosis, 73 what the claimant can still do, 73 Otolaryngologists, 66, 70, 108, 112 Otopalatodigital syndrome, 62 Otorrhea, 64 chronic, 60 Otosclerosis, 92 Otoscopy, 71–72 pneumatic, 71 Ototoxic drugs, and hearing loss, 59, 62, 64, 71 Outcomes of hearing aid use, 204–209 age at amplification, in children, 206–207 device efficacy and features in children, 207–208 direct measures for toddlers and young children, 206 FM systems, in children, 208 in adults, 145–148 measuring, in children, 208 outcomes with minimal and unilateral hearing loss, in children, 208–209 surveys and inventories for pediatric hearing outcome measures, 205–206 P Pain, 64 thresholds of, 49 Paired comparison method, 206 Paired pulsatile sampler (PPS), 156 Past medical history, 71 PB-K. See Phonetically Balanced Kindergarten Word Lists Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, 198 Peak admittance, norms for, 92 Pediatric checklist for audiological evaluation for disability determination, 220–221 Pediatric Speech Intelligibility Test (PSI), 199, 218–219 Pendred’s syndrome, 62 Perception, auditory, 47–59 Performance of aided testing of auditory function, 2 of measures of auditory function incorporating background noise, 2 of objective (physical) measures of auditory function, 1–2 Performance deficits resulting from hearing loss, 2–3 resulting from nonauditory factors, 2–3

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Performance on audiometric tests, and work-related hearing-critical tasks, 125–126 Permanent threshold shift (PTS), and hearing loss, 61 Personnel to conduct the testing, recommendations regarding, 110–111 Phase (q), definition of, 44 Phonetically Balanced Kindergarten Word Lists (PB-K), 200 Phonophobia. See Hyperacusis “Physical Residual Functional Capacity Assessment” (SSA form), 28 Pinna, 45, 56 Pitch perception, loss of, 158 Pneumatic otoscopy, 71 Postimplant communication abilities, 210 Postlingual adult performance, 155–157, 168 PPS. See Paired pulsatile sampler Prediction of disability from clinical tests, 34–40, 172–178 definitions of impairment and disability, 36–37 Prelingual deafness in adults, 61–62, 152–153 in children, 211 Presbycusis, and hearing loss, 59–60, 117 Preschool-age children, measures of spoken word recognition for, 198–199 Present illness, in a medical history, 70 Prevalence of hearing impairment, 22–24 in the workplace, 169 Priority, of research needed, 137–139 Problems not solved by hearing aids, 144–145 Procedures for determining disability in adults, 27–29 for determining disability in children, 29–30 for pure-tone testing, 115–117 for speech threshold testing, 117–118 Profound hearing loss, 61–64 in adults, 63–64 in children, 62–63 Prosthetic correction, 140 Prosthetic devices, 19–20, 140–162 use of auditory, in children, 202–209 Protocol for persons not using a hearing aid or cochlear implant, 134–135 Protocol for persons using a hearing aid or cochlear implant, 135–136 “Pseudohypacusis,” 99 PSI. See Pediatric Speech Intelligibility Test Psychometric properties, 123, 138 Psychosocial impact of hearing loss, 166–168 adjustment and hearing loss, 167–168 perspectives of the deaf community, 166–167 PTA. See Pure-tone average PTS. See Permanent threshold shift Public forum, 40–41 Pure-tone average (PTA), 4, 14–16, 50, 76, 106, 108, 117–118, 124, 126, 214, 216 Pure-tone threshold audiometry, 6, 13, 31, 73, 74–77, 115–116, 129, 191 categories of degrees of hearing loss, 76 graphic representation of pure-tone audiogram, 75 rationale and procedures for, 115–117 in testing adults, 6 Q QALY. Quality-adjusted life year QPS. See Quadruple pulsatile sampler QSIN. See QuickSIN test Quadruple pulsatile sampler (QPS), 156 Quality-adjusted life year (QALY), 157, 176 Quality of life, 2, 176 QuickSIN test (QSIN), 84, 123 R R-SIN. See Revised speech in noise test R-SPIN. See Revised Speech Perception in Noise test Rationale for pure-tone testing, 115–117 for speech threshold testing, 117–118 Reading achievement, 187 Real ear to coupler difference (RECD), 204 “Reasonable medical certainty,” 73 RECD. See Real ear to coupler difference Recognition tasks, 53 Recommendations, 108–123, 178–179, 214–223 brief case history, 113–114 the checklist, 112–113

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits criteria for selecting a speech recognition test for disability determination, 118–123 criteria for selecting tests for disability determination, 109 disability determination, use of self-report in, 178–179 disability determination tests and criteria for adults, 108–137 disability determination tests and criteria for children, 214–220 equipment for testing, 111–112 general recommendations for all testing, 5 otolaryngological examination, 108–109 personnel to conduct the testing, 110–111 rationale and procedures for pure-tone testing, 115–117 rationale and procedures for speech threshold testing, 117–118 for SSA action, 5–8, 106–108 test battery approach, 110 test environment, 111 for testing adults, 6–7 for testing children, 7–8 Recommendations for needed research, 8–9, 137–139, 161–162, 179, 220–223 highest priority, 137–138 related to adult disability determination, 8 related to children’s disability determination, 8–9 secondary priority, 138–139 Recommended disability determinations for children who are deaf or hard of-hearing, 215 Recommended testing protocol and medical listing formula, 124–133 dimensions and difficulty of auditory tasks in the workplace, 132–133 relationships between performance on audiometric tests and on work-related hearing-critical tasks, 125–126 Recorded versus live voice stimulus presentation, for spoken word recognition, 196 Reference-equivalent threshold force level (RETFL), 111–112 Reference-equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (RETSPL), 78, 111–112 Reflex thresholds, acoustic, 93 Rehabilitation Act of 1963, 164 Reliability in testing adult hearing, improving, 102 Reluctance to utilize assistive listening devices, 160 Research on outcomes of hearing aid use, 146–148 Residual Functional Capacity (SSA form), 38 Residual hearing, 156 RETFL. See Reference-equivalent threshold force level RETSPL. See Reference-equivalent threshold sound pressure levels Reverberant spaces, 57–58 Review of systems, in a medical history, 71 Revised speech in noise (R-SIN) test, 84 Revised Speech Perception in Noise (RSPIN) test, 83 Reynell Scales of Language Development, 201 Ringing in the ears. See Tinnitus Ross, Mark, 172 Rubella, 62 S S/B. See Signal-to-babble ratio S/N. See Signal-to-noise ratio SAS. See Simultaneous analog stimulation School-age children, measures of spoken word recognition for, 200–201 Schools for the deaf, 106 Screening Instrument for Targeting Educational Risk (SIFTER), 205 SDT. See Speech detection threshold Selection and adjustment issues, with hearing aid use, 143–144 SELF. See Self Evaluation of Life Function scale Self-assessment instruments, appropriate uses of, 178 Self Evaluation of Life Function (SELF) scale, 177 Self Help for Hard of Hearing People (SHHH), 172 Self-report, 20, 174–174 Sensorineural hearing loss, 59, 60–61

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Sensory aids, devices, and prostheses, 140–162 assistive listening devices (ALDS), 159–161 auditory brainstem implants, 159 cochlear implants, 148–158 hearing aids, 141–148 recommendations for research, 161–162 Sentence tests, 17, 82–85 high-probability, 83 low-probability, 83 Separate test protocols, in testing adults, 6–7 SES. See Socioeconomic status factors Severity scale classification scheme, 76 Sex-linked syndromes, and hearing loss, 62 SF-36. See Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) SGA. See Substantial gainful activity SHARP. See Situational hearing aid response profile SHHH. See Self Help for Hard of Hearing People Sickness Impact Profile, 177 SIFTER. See Screening Instrument for Targeting Educational Risk Signal processing in hearing aids, 141–142 Signal-to-babble (S/B) ratio, 83 Signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, 51, 54, 81–82, 86, 120, 127–128, 147 Significance, of cutoff scores, 218 SII. See Speech intelligibility index Silastic pad, 159 Simmons, Blair, 149 Simultaneous analog stimulation (SAS), 156 SIN. See Speech in noise test Situational hearing aid response profile (SHARP), 208 Skin cysts, 60 Sleep disturbance, 65 Slowed lexical retrieval, 184 Social Adequacy Index, 17 Social history, in a medical history, 71 Social Security Act Title II, 24, 26 Title XVI, 24, 26 Social Security Administration (SSA), 1, 11–12, 24–33, 36–41, 69, 102, 172, 217, 219, 222 beneficiaries in current pay status, 26 current disability criteria for hearing, 30–33 decision flow for adults, 28 decision flow for children, 30 disability determinations and caseload for hearing impairment, 25–27 procedures for determining disability, 27–30, 64–65, 103 protocol for persons not using a hearing aid or cochlear implant, 135 protocol for persons using a hearing aid or cochlear implant, 136 Social Security Advisory Board, 38 Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI), 24–27, 73, 165 Socioeconomic status (SES) factors, 187–188, 213 Sound, the ear, and hearing, 42–68 auditory perception, 47–59 auditory system, 44–47 causes of hearing loss, 59–64 definitions, 43–44 hyperacusis, 67 introduction to sound, 42–47 tinnitus, 64–67 Sound detection, 48–52 in auditory perception, 48–52 thresholds of detecting tones and for discomfort and pain, 49 Sound discrimination, in auditory perception, 52–53 Sound identification, in auditory perception, 53–55 Sound intensity (I), definition of, 44 Sound localization, 55–58, 105 in auditory perception, 55–58 azimuth—overhead view of the listener, 56 Sound pressure (p), definition of, 43 Sound pressure level (SPL), definition of, 44, 48–50 Sound source determination, in auditory perception, 58–59 Sound waves, 42–43 Source determination, in auditory perception, 58–59 Sources of variability in the speech signal, in spoken word recognition, 197 Spanish bisyllabic words, lists of, 90 SPEAK. See Spectral Peak speech encoding algorithms

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Special features, for hearing aids, 203 Spectral notches, 56–57 Spectral Peak (SPEAK) speech encoding algorithms, 151, 156 Spectrum, definition of, 44 Speech audiometry, 77–86 closed-set tests, 85–86 open-set tests, 80–85 speech thresholds, 78–79 suprathreshold speech recognition, 79–80 “Speech babble,” 44 Speech detection threshold (SDT), 78–79, 117–118 Speech discrimination, medical listing criteria , 16, 31 Speech feature cueing, 223 Speech in noise (SIN) test, 84 revised, 84 Speech intelligibility, and language, 211–214 Speech intelligibility index (SII), 54, 87–88, 138, 146 improving accuracy of, 123 Speech Perception in Noise (SPIN) test, 83, 87 revised, 83 Speech perception tests, 157 in testing children, 7, 214–220 Speech production outcome measures, and spoken word recognition, 201 “Speech reading,” 21, 88, 156, 223 Speech recognition testing, 6, 119–120, 127, 146 with auditory and visual cues, 87–89 for children, 218–219 materials available in languages other than English, 90 in noise, 105 suprathreshold, 79–80 Speech recognition threshold (SRT), 31, 54, 73, 78, 85, 117–118 Speech skills in children with hearing loss, 183–184 in children with normal hearing, 181 Speech testing, 17, 102 Speech therapy, 213 Speech threshold testing, 6, 78–79 rationale and procedures for testing, 117–118 in testing adults, 6 Speed of sound (c), definition of, 44 SPIN. See Speech Perception in Noise test SPL. See Sound pressure level Spoken word recognition, 195–201, 209–211 in communication assessment, 195–201 measures for preschool-age children, 198–199 measures of spoken word recognition for school-age children, 200–201 multimodal spoken word recognition, 197–198 open-set versus closed-set test formats, 196–197 recorded versus live voice stimulus presentation, 196 sources of variability in the speech signal, 197 speech production outcome measures, 201 Spondee words, 78n, 90 SRT. See Speech recognition threshold SSA. See Social Security Administration SSDI. See Social Security Disability Insurance SSEP. See Steady-state evoked potential SSI. See Supplemental Security Income disability benefits; Synthetic Sentence Identification test Standard otolaryngological examination, 69–73 children, 73 clinical findings (physical examination), 71–72 diagnosis, 72–73 laboratory findings, 72 medical history, 70–71 treatment prescribed with response and prognosis, 73 what the claimant can still do, 73 Standardized language processing measures, 217 in testing children, 7 Standards. See American National Standards Institute Stapedius muscle, 93 State workers’ compensation law, 36–37 Steady-state evoked potential (SSEP), 193 Stickler’s syndrome, 62 Streptomycin, 62 Study process, 40–41 Styles of hearing aids, 141, 202–203

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Subjective tests. See Behavioral tests Substantial gainful activity (SGA), 25 ability to engage in, 103 Supplemental Security Income (SSI) disability benefits, 24–25, 27, 29, 73, 165 Supra-aural earphones, 74–75 Suprathreshold speech recognition, 73, 79–80, 100 Surveys for pediatric hearing outcome measures, in hearing aid use, 205–206 Symptoms of ear disorders, 64 Synthetic Sentence Identification (SSI) test, 86 Syphilis, 62, 64 neural, 64 Systemic infections, and hearing loss, 62 Systemic lupus, 64 T T-coil. See Induction coil Tangible reinforcement audiometry (TROCA), 192 Task Force on Newborn and Infant Hearing, 216 Tay-Sachs disease, 62 Telephones, amplified, 159 Temporary threshold shift (TTS), and hearing loss, 61 Terminology defined, 43–44 area (Ar), 43 complex sound, 44 decibel (dB), 44 DekaPascals (daPa), 44 force (F), 43 Hertz (Hz), 44 noise, 44 phase (q), 44 sound intensity (I), 44 sound pressure (p), 43 sound pressure level (SPL), 44 spectrum, 44 speed of sound (c), 44 time (t), 44 tone, 44 white noise, 44 Test battery approach recommendations regarding, 110 in testing adults, 6 Test environment, recommendations regarding, 111 Test protocols, 6–7 claimants with hearing aids, 6–7 claimants without hearing aids, 6–7 Test-retest differences, maximum acceptable, 122 Test-retest reliability, 83, 199 Testing adult hearing, 6–7, 101–139. See also Otolaryngological examination checklist completion, 6 general recommendations, 106–108 improving reliability, 102 key issues, 101–104 limitations of current formula and testing protocol, 105–106 nonspeech sounds, 2, 101–102 objective (physiological) testing, 6, 102 predictive validity, 102–104 protocol for persons not using a hearing aid or cochlear implant, 134–135 pure-tone threshold audiometric testing, 6 recommended protocol and medical listing formula, 124–133 research needed, 137–139 separate test protocols, 6–7 specific recommendations, 108–123 speech recognition testing, 6 speech threshold, 6 step-by-step protocols, 133–136 summary of criteria for hearing disability, 134 test battery, 6 Testing children’s hearing, 7–8 average hearing levels, 7 audiometric diagnostic evaluation, 190–195 checklist completion, 8 communication assessment, 195–202 criteria for determination of disability, 7 effects of hearing loss on literacy and education, 186–188 infant hearing screening, 189–190 speech perception tests, 7 standardized language processing measures, 7 tests and protocols varying with age of child, 7 Testing protocols closed-set, 85–86 limitations of, 4–5

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits open-set, 80–85 in testing children, varying with age of child, 7 Threshold audiometry, 190–192 in adults, 115–118, 134–136 behavioral tests of hearing threshold, 191 in children, 190–192 Thresholds of detecting tones and for discomfort and pain, 49 Time (t), definition of, 44 Tinnitus, 64–67 distribution of suffering from, 65 TN. See True negative outcomes Tobramycin, 62, 64 Tone, definition of, 44 Tonotopic organization, 46 TP. See True positive outcomes Transducers, 94 Trauma, and hearing loss, 59, 64 Treacher Collins syndrome, 62 Treatment, prescribed with response and prognosis, in a standard otolaryngological examination, 70, 73 TROCA. See Tangible reinforcement audiometry Trouble concentrating, 65 True negative (TN) outcomes, 103, 139 True positive (TP) outcomes, 103 “True score,” 16 TTS. See Temporary threshold shift TTY technology, 160, 164 Tuning fork tests (optional), 72 TW. See Tympanometric width Tympanic membrane, 45, 59 mobility of, 194 perforation in, 60, 92 Tympanograms, 91–92 Tympanometric width (TW), norms for, 92 Tympanometry, 91–92 norms for peak admittance, tympanometric width, and equivalent volume, 92 U Unilateral hearing loss, in children with hearing loss, 185–186 United Kingdom, 14 University of California at San Francisco, 149 U.S. Census Bureau, 129 U.S. Department of Defense, 19 U.S. Department of Education, 137, 221 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 23 U.S. Department of Transportation, 19 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 106, 151–152, 154, 159 U.S. Public Health Service, 23 Usher syndrome, 62 V VA. See Veterans Administration Validity, predictive, testing adult hearing, 102–104, 179 Verification, 144 Vertigo, 64 Veterans Administration (VA), 81, 107, 120–123, 126–128, 134–136, 139, 155 Video recordings, 138 Viral meningitis, 64 Visual acuity, loss of, 100 Visual cues, speech recognition with, 21–22, 87–89, 223 Visual Impairments: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits, 24n, 33n Visual reinforcement audiometry (VRA), 191, 214 Vocational grids, 38 Volume. See Equivalent volume VRA. See Visual reinforcement audiometry W Waardenburg’s syndrome, 62 WDRC. See Wide dynamic range compression Wegener’s granulomatosis, 64 White noise, definition of, 44 Whole nerve action potential measures, 152 Wide dynamic range compression (WDRC), 141, 203 Wildervaank’s syndrome, 62 WIPI. See Word Intelligibility by Picture Identification test

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Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits Word Intelligibility by Picture Identification (WIPI) test, 200, 218–219 Work-related hearing-critical tasks, performance on audiometric tests and, 125–126 Workplace issues in hearing loss, 169–171 communication barriers, 170–171 employment status of adults with hearing loss, 169–170 prevalence of hearing loss in the workplace, 169 World Health Organization, 33–34, 36–37, 172, 177–178 World War II testing, 14 X X-linked disorders, 62