tion of automated memory management that frees the programmer from worrying about details of allocating and deallocating storage. These features not only improve the ability of a programming language to express a programmer’s intent but also offer better facilities for detecting inconsistencies and other errors in programs.

Today’s huge and ever-growing software infrastructure presents an enormous challenge for programmers, software companies, and society as whole. Because programs are written by people, they contain defects known as bugs. Even the best programs, written using the most advanced software engineering techniques, contain between 10 and 10,000 errors per million lines of new code. Some defects are minor, while others have the potential to disrupt society significantly.

The constantly evolving programming languages, techniques, and tools have done much to improve the quality of software. But the software revolution is always in need of some sweetening. Programming-language researchers are devoting increasing attention to producing programs with far fewer defects and systems with much higher levels of fault tolerance. They are also developing software verification tools of greater power and rigor that can be used throughout the software development process. The ultimate research goal is to produce programming languages and software development tools with which robust software systems can be created routinely and economically for all of tomorrow’s applications.

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