References

Achs, Z., and D.B. Audretsch 2003 Innovation and technological change. In Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Z.J. Achs and D.B. Audretsch, eds. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Acs, Z.J., H.L.F. de Groot, and P. Nijkamp 2002 Knowledge, innovation and regional development. In The Emergence of the Knowledge Economy, Z.J. Acs, H.L.F. de Groot, and P. Nijkamp, eds. New York: Springer.

Adams, J.D., and A.B. Jaffe 1996 Bounding the effects of R&D: An investigation using matched establishment-firm data. RAND Journal of Economics 27(Winter):700-721.

Altshuler, R. 1988 A dynamic analysis of the research and experimentation tax credit. National Tax Journal 41:453-466.

Andersson, C., H. Lindstrom, and L. Lyberg 1997 Quality declaration at Statistics Sweden. Statistical Policy Working Paper 26. Seminar on Statistical Methodology in the Public Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

Archibugi, D., and G. Sirilli 2001 The direct measurement of technological innovation in business. In Innovation and Enterprise Creation: Statistics and Indicators, European Commission (Eurostat), ed. Luxembourg: European Commission.

Archibugi, D., S. Cesaratto, and G. Sirilli 1991 Sources of innovative activities and industrial organization in Italy. Research Policy 20:299-313.

Arundel, A. 2003 Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy. Maastricht, Netherlands: Merit.

Arundel, A., G. van de Paal, and L. Soete 1995 PACE Report: Innovation Strategies of Europe’s Largest Industrial Firms: Results of the PACE Survey for Information Sources, Public Research, Protection of Innovations, and Government Programmes, Final Report. Prepared for the SPRINT Programme, European Commission. Maastricht, Netherlands: Merit, University of Limbourg.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 177
Measuring Research and Development Expenditures in the U.S. Economy References Achs, Z., and D.B. Audretsch 2003 Innovation and technological change. In Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Z.J. Achs and D.B. Audretsch, eds. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Acs, Z.J., H.L.F. de Groot, and P. Nijkamp 2002 Knowledge, innovation and regional development. In The Emergence of the Knowledge Economy, Z.J. Acs, H.L.F. de Groot, and P. Nijkamp, eds. New York: Springer. Adams, J.D., and A.B. Jaffe 1996 Bounding the effects of R&D: An investigation using matched establishment-firm data. RAND Journal of Economics 27(Winter):700-721. Altshuler, R. 1988 A dynamic analysis of the research and experimentation tax credit. National Tax Journal 41:453-466. Andersson, C., H. Lindstrom, and L. Lyberg 1997 Quality declaration at Statistics Sweden. Statistical Policy Working Paper 26. Seminar on Statistical Methodology in the Public Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Archibugi, D., and G. Sirilli 2001 The direct measurement of technological innovation in business. In Innovation and Enterprise Creation: Statistics and Indicators, European Commission (Eurostat), ed. Luxembourg: European Commission. Archibugi, D., S. Cesaratto, and G. Sirilli 1991 Sources of innovative activities and industrial organization in Italy. Research Policy 20:299-313. Arundel, A. 2003 Patents in the Knowledge-Based Economy. Maastricht, Netherlands: Merit. Arundel, A., G. van de Paal, and L. Soete 1995 PACE Report: Innovation Strategies of Europe’s Largest Industrial Firms: Results of the PACE Survey for Information Sources, Public Research, Protection of Innovations, and Government Programmes, Final Report. Prepared for the SPRINT Programme, European Commission. Maastricht, Netherlands: Merit, University of Limbourg.

OCR for page 177
Measuring Research and Development Expenditures in the U.S. Economy Atkinson, R., and R. Court 1998 The New Economy Index: Understanding America’s Economic Transformation. Washington, DC: Progressive Policy Institute. Australia Bureau of Statistics 2002 Discussion Paper: Measuring a Knowledge-based Economy and Society—An Australian Framework. [Online.] Available: http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/Ausstats/free.nsf/Lookup/4F8E59034103E624CA256C230007DC05/$File/13750_aug%202002.pdf [accessed July 9, 2004]. Bean, A.S., M.J. Ruse, and R. Whitely 2000 Benchmarking your R&D: Results from IRI/CIMS Annual R&D Surveys for FY ‘98. Research Technology Management 43:(1):16-24. Bostic, Jr., W.G. 2003 Census Bureau Perspective on Improving the RD-1 Survey. Unpublished paper presented at the Panel on Research and Development Statistics at the National Science Foundation’s Workshop on R&D Statistics at NSF, July 24-25, Washington, DC. Branscomb, L.M., and P.E. Auerswald 2002 Between Invention and Innovation: An Analysis of Early-Stage Technology Development. NIST GCR 02-841. Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology. Brooks, H. 1968 The Government of Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Bureau of Economic Analysis 1994 A satellite account for research and analysis. Survey of Current Business, November. [Online.] Available: http://bea.gov/bea/articles/NATIONAL/NIPAREL/1994/1194od.pdf [accessed April 1, 2004]. Bush, V. 1945 Science—The Endless Frontier: A Report to the President on a Program for Postwar Scientific Research. Washington, DC: Office of Scientific Research and Development. Butani, S., K.W. Robertson, and K. Mueller 1998 Assigning permanent random numbers to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Longitudinal (Universe) Database. Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods (American Statistical Association):451-456. Cesaratto, S., S. Mangano, and G. Sirilli 1991 The innovative behaviour of Italian firms: A survey on technological innovation and R&D. Scientometrics 1:207-233. Chesbrough, H.W. 2003 Open Innovation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press. CHI Research, Inc. 2002 Small Serial Innovators: The Small Firm Contribution to Technical Change. Haddon Heights, NJ: CHI Research, Inc. Cochran, W.G. 1997 Sampling Techniques. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Cohen, W.M., and S. Klepper 1992 An anatomy of industry R&D intensity distributions. American Economic Review (September):775. Cohen, W.M., R.C. Levin, and D.C. Mowrey 1987 Firm size and R&D intensity: A re-examination. Journal of Industrial Economics 35(4):543-565.

OCR for page 177
Measuring Research and Development Expenditures in the U.S. Economy Cohen, W.M., R.R. Nelson, and J.P. Walsh 2000 Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and Why U.S. Manufacturing Firms Patent (or Not). NBER Working Paper 7552. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. 2002a Links and impacts: The influence of public research on industrial R&D. Management Science 48(January):1-23. Cohen, W.M., A. Goto, A. Nagata, R.R. Nelson, and J.P. Walsh 2002b R&D spillovers, patents and the incentives to innovate in Japan and the United States. Research Policy 31(December):1349-1367. Committee for Economic Development 1998 America’s Basic Research: Prosperity Through Discovery. [Online.] Available: http://www.ced.org/docs/report/report_basic.pdf [accessed July 21, 2004]. Congressional Research Service 1999 Explanation of Disparity in Industry Reported DOD R&D Expenditures. Memorandum. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. 2000 Challenges in Collecting and Reporting Federal Research and Development Data, M. Davey and R. Rowberg, eds. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Corrado, C., C. Hulten, and D. Sichel 2004 Measuring capital and technology: An expanded framework. In Measuring Capital in the New Economy, C. Corrado, J. Haltiwanger, and D. Sichel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (forthcoming). Ducharme, L-M., and F.D. Gault 1992 Surveys of advanced manufacturing technology. Science and Public Policy (December):393-399. Economic Development Administration 2001 Strategic Planning in the Technology-Driven World: A Guidebook for Innovation-Led Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. Energy Information Agency 2001 Technical Information on CBECS. [Online.] Available: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cbecs/technical_information.html [accessed April 12, 2003]. Ernst, L., R. Valliant, and R. Casady 2000 Permanent and collocated random number sampling and the coverage of births and deaths. Journal of Official Statistics 16:211-228. European Commission 2003a Innovation Policy: Updating the Union’s Approach in the Context of the Lisbon Strategy. [Online.] Available: http://europa.eu.int/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!DocNumber&lg=en&type_doc=COMfinal&an_doc=2003&nu_doc=112 [accessed July 9, 2004]. 2003b Raising EU R&D Intensity, Report to the European Commission by an Independent Expert Group. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. European Council 2000 Presidency Conclusions, Lisbon European Council. [Online.] Available: http://ue.eu.int/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressData/en/ec/00100-r1.en0.htm [accessed July 9, 2004]. Eustace, C. 2003 The PRISM Project: Report of Research Findings and Policy Recommendations. Report Series No. 2. European Commission Information Technologies Program. [Online.] Available: http://www.euintangibles.net/research_results/FinalReport.pdf [accessed April 8, 2004].

OCR for page 177
Measuring Research and Development Expenditures in the U.S. Economy Federal Trade Commission 1985 Testing the Theory of Competition in R&D of Large U.S. Companies. Economic policy paper by J.T. Scott and G.A. Pascoe, Jr. Washington, DC: Federal Trade Commission. Fossum, D., L.S. Painter, V. Williams, A. Yezril, E. Newton, and D. Trinkle 2000 Discovery and Innovation: Federal Research and Development Activities in the Fifty States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Santa Monica, CA: RAND. Fossum, D., L.S. Painter, E. Eiseman, E. Ettedgui, and D.M. Adamson 2004 Vital Assets: Federal Investment in Research and Development at the Nation’s Universities and Colleges. Santa Monica, CA: RAND. [Online.] Available: http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1824/MR1824.sum.pdf [accessed May 20, 2004]. Fraumeni, B., and S. Okubo 2002 R&D in the National Income and Product Accounts: A First Look at Its Effect on GDP. [Online.] Available: http://bea.gov/bea/papers/R&D-NIPA.pdf [accessed April 1, 2004]. Gallaher, M.P. 2003 Measurement issues in a changing environment. Unpublished paper presented at the Panel on Research and Development Statistics at the National Science Foundation’s Workshop on R&D Statistics at NSF, July 24-25, 2003, Washington, DC. Gallaher, M., and J. Petrusa 2003 Technical Memorandum on Service Sector R&D. RTI Project No. 08236.002. Memorandum to the National Science Foundation. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International. The Gallup Organization 2000 Survey of Research and Development Funding and Performance by Nonprofit Organizations: Methodology Report. Princeton, NJ: The Gallup Organization. Gault, F. 2003 Understanding Innovation in Canadian Industry. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Griffith, R., R. Harrison, and M. Hawkins 2003 Report on Estimating Private and Social Rates of Return to R&D Using Matched ARD and BERD Micro Data. Unpublished paper. London: Institute for Fiscal Studies. Griliches, Z. 1980 R&D and the Productivity Slowdown. Working Paper 0434. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Griliches, Z., and F. Lichtenberg 1984 Interindustry technology flows and productivity growth: A re-examination. Review of Economics and Statistics (May):324-329. Groves, R.M., and J.M. Lepkowski 1985 Dual frame, mixed mode survey designs. Journal of Official Statistics 1:263-286. Guellec, D., and B. Pattinson 2000 Innovation surveys: Lessons from OECD countries’ experiences. STI Review 27:79. Hall, B. 2001 Tax Incentives for Innovation in the United States. Report to the European Union submitted by Asesoria Industrial ZABALA-Spain. [Online.] Available: http://emlab.berkeley.edu/users/bhhall/papers/BHH01EUReportUSArtax.pdf [accessed April 12, 2004].

OCR for page 177
Measuring Research and Development Expenditures in the U.S. Economy Hall, B.H., and W.F. Long 1999 Differences in Reported R&D Data on the NSF/Census RD-1 Form and the SEC 10K Form: A Micro-Data Investigation. [Online.] Available: http://emlab.berkeley.edu/users/bhhall/papers/HallLong99%20R&Ddata.pdf [accessed April 12, 2004]. Hansen, J.A. 2001 Technology innovation indicator surveys. In Strategic Research Partnerships, J.E. Jankowski, A.N. Link, and N.S. Vonortos, eds. Proceedings from an NSF Workshop. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. Hill, C.T., J.A. Hansen, and J.H. Maxwell 1982 Assessing the Feasibility of New Science and Technology Indicators. CPA-82-4. Boston: Center for Policy Alternatives, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Hill, C.T., J.A. Hansen, and J.I. Stein 1983 New Indicators of Industrial Innovation. CPA83-14. Boston: Center for Policy Alternatives, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Holmberg, A. 2002 Pre-Printing Effects in Official Statistics, An Experimental Study. Unpublished paper presented at the International Conference on Questionnaire Development, Evaluation, and Testing Methods November 14-17,, Charleston, SC. Howells, J. 1999 Research and technology outsourcing. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management 11(March):17. Jaffe, A.B 1996 Trends and patterns in research and development expenditures in the United States. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93:12658-12663. Jankowski, J. 1999 Trends in academic research spending, alliances, and commercialization. Journal of Technology Transfer 24:55-68. 2002 Measurement and growth of R&D within the service economy. Journal of Technology Transfer 26:323. Jones, A.K. 2003 Innovation in the U.S.—Descriptive Statistics. Unpublished paper presented at the Panel on Research and Development Statistics at the National Sciences Foundation’s Workshop on R&D Statistics at NSF, July 24-25, 2003, Washington, DC. Kish, L. 1965 Survey Sampling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Koizumi, K. 2003 Understanding the Basic Federal Measures. Unpublished paper presented at the Panel on Research and Development Statistics at National Science Foundation’s Workshop on R&D Statistics at NSF, July 24-25, 2003, Washington, DC. Kott, P.S., and F.A. Vogel 1995 Multiple-frame business surveys. In Business Survey Methods, B. Cox, D.A. Binder, B.N. Chinnappa, A. Christianson, M.J. Colledge, and P.S. Kott, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Krugman, P. 2000 Where in the world is the “new economic geography”? In The Oxford Handbook of Economic Geography, G.L. Clark, M.P. Feldman, and M.S. Gertler, eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kuemmerle, W. 2003 Location of R&D Activity—International Data Issues. Unpublished paper presented at the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy’s Workshop on R&D Data Issues, April 7, Washington, DC.

OCR for page 177
Measuring Research and Development Expenditures in the U.S. Economy Kuh, C. 2003 Does assessing doctoral programs bear any relation to classifying R&D? Presentation to the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy’s Workshop on Research and Development Data Needs, April 7, 2003, Washington, DC. Kusch, G.L., and W. Ricciardi 1995 Design of the Survey of Industrial Research and Development: A Historical Perspective. Manufacturing and Construction Division Report Series, Working Paper Number Census/MCD/WP-95/01. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Larsson, A. 2004 Innovation output and barriers to innovation. In Statistics in Focus, KNS-NS-04-001-EN-N. Luxembourg: Eurostat. Levin, R.C., A.K. Klevorick, R.R. Nelson, and S.G. Winter 1987 Appropriating returns from industrial research and development. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 3:783-820. Lichtenberg, F., and D. Siegel 1991 The impact of R&D investment on productivity: New evidence using linked R&D-LDR data. Economic Inquiry 29(2):203-229. Link, A.N. 1996 On the classification of industrial R&D. Research Policy 25:397-401. 2003 University-Related Research Parks in the United States: Final Report. Paper submitted to the National Science Foundation, Research and Development Statistics Program. Department of Economics, University of North Carolina, Greensboro. Long, W.F. 2003 Expanding the Collection of Data from Industry: Taking the Line of Business Step. Unpublished paper presented at the Panel on Research and Development Statistics at the National Science Foundation’s Workshop on R&D Statistics at NSF, July 24-25, Washington, DC. Mansfield, E. 1980 Comment on Griliches, “Returns to Research and Development Expenditures in the Private Sector.” In New Developments in Productivity Measurement and Analysis. NBER Studies in Income and Wealth, Volume 44, J.W. Kendrick and B.N. Vaccara, eds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. McGuckin, R.H. 2004 Internationally Comparable Science, Technology, and Competitiveness Indicators. New York: The Conference Board. Mohnen, P., and P. Therrien 2003 Comparing the innovation performance of manufacturing firms in Canada and selected European countries: An econometric analysis. In Understanding Innovation in Canadian Industry, F. Gault, ed. Montreal-Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press. Myers, S., and D.G. Marquis 1969 Successful Industrial Innovations: A Study of Factors Underlying Innovation in Selected Firms. NSF 69-17. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. National Research Council 1987 Interdisciplinary Research in Mathematics, Science and Technology Education. Committee on Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1995 Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Technology. Committee on Criteria for Federal Support of Research and Development, Commission on Physical Science, Mathematics, and Applications. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

OCR for page 177
Measuring Research and Development Expenditures in the U.S. Economy 1997 Industrial Research and Innovation Indicators: Report of a Workshop, R.S. Cooper and S.A. Merrill, eds. Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 2000 Measuring the Science and Engineering Enterprise: Priorities for the Division of Science Resources Studies. Committee to Assess the Portfolio of the Division of Science Resources Studies of NSF. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 2001a Using Human Resource Data to Track Innovation: Summary of a Workshop, S.A. Merrill and M. McGeary, eds. Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 2001b Principles and Practices for a Federal Statistical Agency, second edition. M.E. Martin, M.L. Straf, and C.F. Citro, eds. Committee on National Statistics. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 2001c Trends in Federal Support of Research and Graduate Education. Committee on Trends in Federal Spending on Scientific and Engineering Research, Board on Science, Technology and Economic Policy. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 2002 Observations on the President’s Fiscal Year 2003 Federal Science and Technology Budget. Committee on the FY 2003 Federal Science and Technology Budget, Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2003 Improving the Design of the Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT). Committee on National Statistics, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2005 Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research. Committee on Science, Education, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press (forthcoming). National Science and Technology Council 2003 National Nanotechnology Initiative: Research and Development Supporting the Next Industrial Revolution. Supplement to the President’s FY 2004 Budget. [Online.] Available: http://www.nano.gov/html/res/fy04-pdf/fy04-main.html [accessed August 26, 2004]. National Science Board 2002 Science and Engineering Indicators−2002. [Online.] Available: http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/seind02/toc.htm [accessed April 8, 2003.] 2004 Science and Engineering Indicators—2004. NSB 04-01. [Online.] Available: http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/seind04/ [accessed July 8, 2004]. National Science Foundation no date Statistical Guidelines for Surveys and Publications. Science Resource Statistics Division. [Online.] Available: http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/infoqual/srsguide.pdf [accessed February 4, 2004]. 1967 Proceedings of a Conference in Technology Transfer and Innovation. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. 1976 Technological Innovation and Federal Government Policy. NSF 76-9. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. 1996 R&D Continues to be an Important Part of the Innovative Process. Data Brief No. 7 (August 7). L.M. Rausch. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. 1998 Report on the NSF Agency Workshop on Federal R&D. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. 1999 Report to the Congress: The Value and Usefulness of the RaDiUS Database, May 20, 1999. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. 2001 Survey of R&D in Industry, 2001, Table A-18. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation.

OCR for page 177
Measuring Research and Development Expenditures in the U.S. Economy 2002 Methodology Report for the National Science Foundation’s Survey of Federal Science and Engineering Support to Universities, Colleges, and Nonprofit Institutions, Fiscal Year 2000. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. 2004 Largest Single-Year Decline in U.S. Industrial R&D Expenditures Reported for 2002. Info Brief, NSF 04-320. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. Ohlsson, E. 1995 Coordination of samples using permanent random numbers. In Business Survey Methods, B. Cox, D.A. Binder, B.N. Chinnappa, A. Christianson, M.J. Colledge, and P.S. Kott, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ORC Macro no date Revised Imputation Methodology for Basic Academic Research Data. Memorandum by Brandon Shackelford. Bethesda, MD: Quantum Research Corporation. 2002 Methodology Report for the NSF-NIH Survey of Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities, Fiscal Year 2001. Paper prepared for the National Science Foundation, September 2002. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 1963 Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys of Research and Development: The Measurement of Scientific and Technical Activities. Directorate for Scientific Affairs Report DAS/PD/62.47. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 1992 Proposed Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Technological Innovation Data: Oslo Manual. OECD/GD(92)26. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2002a Frascati Manual: Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys on Research and Experimental Development. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2002b Purchasing Power Parities and Real Expenditures: 1999 Benchmark Year 2002 Edition. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2004 Main Science and Technology Indicators. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Eurostat 1997 Proposed Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Technological Innovation Data: Oslo Manual, second edition. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology 2002 Assessing the U.S. R&D Investment. [Online.] Available: http://www.ncseonline.org/affiliates/news/sep/PCAST_Report.pdf [accessed April 8, 2004]. Quantum Research Corporation 1999 Study of Federally Funded Industrial R&D, Summary of Findings From Company Interviews and Analysis of Collateral Data. Bethesda, MD: Quantum Research Corporation. Reamer, A., L. Icerman, and J. Youtie 2003 Technology Transfer and Commercialization: Their Role in Economic Development. U.S. Economic Development Administration. [Online.] Available: http://www.eda.gov/ImageCache/EDAPublic/documents/pdfdocs/eda_5fttc_2epdf/v1/eda_5fttc.pdf [accessed April 7, 2004]. Romer, P. 2003 The soft revolution: Achieving growth by managing intangibles. In Intangible Assets: Values, Measures, and Risks, J.R.M. Hand, ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

OCR for page 177
Measuring Research and Development Expenditures in the U.S. Economy Rosenberg, N. 1994 Exploring the Black Box: Technology, Economics and History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. RR Bowker, Inc. 1994 Directory of American Research and Technology, 28th edition. New Providence, NJ: RR Bowker, Inc. Schumpeter, J. 1947 Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, second edition. New York: Harper and Row. Statistics Canada 2003 Industrial Research and Development: 2003 Intentions. Catalogue no. 88-202-XIE. Ottawa, ON: Statistics Canada. Street, D.L., N.B.Nichols, and S.J. Gray 2000 Segment disclosures under SFAS no. 131: Has business segment reporting improved? Accounting Horizons 14(3):259−285. Tether, B., and S.J. Metcalfe 2002 Services and Systems of Innovation. Unpublished paper presented at the DRUID Academy Winter 2002 PhD Conference, Aalborg, Denmark, January. Therrien, P., and P. Mohnen 2003 How innovative are Canadian firms compared to some European firms? A comparative look at innovation surveys. Technovation 23(4):359-369. Thornton, P.H., and K.H. Flynn 2003 Entrepreneurship, networks, and geographies. In Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Z.J. Achs and D.B. Audretch, eds. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Touhy, R.V. 1998 How the Department of Defense utilizes federal funds survey data. In Report on the NSF Agency Workshop on Federal R&D, National Science Foundation, ed. Washington, DC: National Science Foundation. Tourangeau, R. 2003 Web-based data collection. In Survey Automation: Report and Workshop Proceedings, Oversight Committee for the Workshop on Survey Automation. D.L. Cork, M.L. Cohen, R. Groves, and W. Kalsbeek, eds. Committee on National Statistics. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 1989 The Impact of Research and Development on Productivity Growth. BLS Bulletin 2331. Washington, DC: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2002 Multifactor Productivity Trends, 2000. [Online.] Available: http://www.bls.gov/mfp [accessed October 8, 2004]. U.S. Census Bureau 1989 Manufacturing Technology 1988. Current Industrial Reports. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. 1994 Documentationof Nonsampling Error Issues in the Survey of Industrial Research and Development. Unpublished paper by D. Bond. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. 1995 Results of Cognitive Research on the Survey of Industrial Research and Development. Unpublished paper by W. Davis, and T.J. DeMaio. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. 1997 Federally Funded Research and Development: Obligations Versus Spending, Interviews with Selected Performers. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

OCR for page 177
Measuring Research and Development Expenditures in the U.S. Economy 1998 Economic Data Collection via the Web: A Census Bureau Case Study. [Online.] Available: http://www.websurveyor.com/pdf/census.pdf [accessed February 4, 2004]. 2000 Data Collection Issues in the 1998 Survey of Industrial Research and Development. Manufacturing and Construction Division, Special Studies Branch. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. 2004 2003 Survey of Industrial Research and Development, Form RD-1 Instructions. [Online.] Available: http://help.econ.census.gov/BHS/RD/RD-1I.pdf [accessed April 12, 2004]. U.S. Congress 2003 National Science Foundation Authorization Act of 2002, 107th Congress, 2d Session, H.R. 4664, Section 25. Study on Research and Development Funding Data Discrepancies. U.S. Congress, House 1998 Unlocking Our Future: Toward a National Science Policy. Committee on Science. [Online.] Available: http://www.house.gov/science/science_policy_report.htm [accessed April 7, 2004]. U.S. Congress, Joint Economic Committee 1999a The Growing Importance of Industrial R&D to the U.S. Economy. [Online.] Available: http://garnet.acns.fsu.edu/~cskipton/JEC_post/r&d%20importance%20%20edwards.pdf [accessed June 3, 2004]. 1999b American Leadership in the Innovation Economy. [Online.] Available: http://garnet.acns.fsu.edu/~cskipton/JEC_post/high-tech%20hearing%20report%201999.pdf [accessed June 3, 2004]. U.S. Department of Commerce 1967 Technological Innovation: Its Environment and Management (Charpie Report). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. U.S. General Accounting Office 2001 Research and Development Funding: Reported Gap Between Data From Federal Agencies and Their R&D Performers Results From Noncomparable Data. GAO-01-512R. Washington, DC: U.S. General Accounting Office. U.S. Office of Management and Budget 2001 Measuring and Reporting Sources of Error in Surveys. Working Paper 31. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Management and Budget. 2002 Notice of Office of Management and Budget Action, Survey of Industrial Research and Development, 2001-2004. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Management and Budget. 2003a Circular No. A-11, Section 84-4. [Online.] Available: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/circulars/a11/current_year/s84.pdf [accessed April 8, 2004]. 2003b Statistical Programs of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2004. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Management and Budget. 2003c Implementation Guidance for the E-Government Act of 2002. Memorandum. Washington, DC: U.S. Office of Management and Budget. 2004 President’s Budget for 2005: Analytical Perspectives, Research and Development. [Online.] Available: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2005/pdf/spec.pdf [accessed May 20, 2004]. Vonortas, N. 2003 Data on R&D Collaboration. Unpublished paper presented at the Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy’s Workshop on R&D Data Needs, April 7, Washington, DC.