Appendixes



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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces Appendixes

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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces A Biographies of Committee Members and Staff Annette J. Krygiel (Chair) is an independent consultant, having recently completed an assignment as a visiting fellow at the Institute for National Strategic Studies at the National Defense University, where she wrote a book on large-scale system integration. Dr. Krygiel’s background is in the management of large-scale systems, particularly in regard to software development and systems integration. Before being appointed to the Institute for National Strategic Studies, she was director of the Central Imagery Office (CIO), a Department of Defense combat support agency. Dr. Krygiel remained the director for 27 months, until CIO joined the National Imagery and Mapping Agency in October 1996. Dr. Krygiel began her career at the Defense Mapping Agency, where she held various positions, such as chief scientist. Dr. Krygiel has been a participant in National Research Council (NRC) studies, including the work of the Panel on Distributed Geolibraries: Spatial Information Resources. She is currently a member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. Ruzena K. Bajcsy is director of the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS) at the University of California, Berkeley. Before becoming director for CITRIS, she was assistant director for Computer Information Science and Engineering at the National Science Foundation. A member of the National Academy of Engineering and Institute of Medicine, Dr. Bajcsy obtained her first Ph.D. from Slovak Technical University (Slovakia) and her second Ph.D. from Stanford University. Dr. Bajcsy’s research interests are in machine perception, computer vision, characterizing and solving problems involving segmentation, and three-dimensional vision and other sensory modalities that function together with vision. She has served on numerous

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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces scientific and technical advisory groups including the NRC’s Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board. She is a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and founding fellow of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence. Alan Berman is a part-time employee at the Applied Research Laboratory of Pennsylvania State University (ARL/PSU) and at the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA). At ARL/PSU, Dr. Berman provides general management support and program appraisal; at CNA, he assists with analyses of Navy research and development investment programs, space operation capabilities, information operations, and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) programs. Dr. Berman’s background is in defense science and technology, particularly in regard to advanced weapons and combat systems. His previous positions include that of dean of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Miami, where he was responsible for the graduate programs in physical oceanography, marine biology, geology, geophysics, applied ocean science, and underwater acoustics; and director of research at the Naval Research Laboratory, where he administered broad programs in basic and applied research, including electronic warfare, radar, communications, space systems, space sciences, material sciences, plasma physics, antisubmarine warfare, underwater acoustics, oceanography, electronic devices, and space-based time standards for Global Positioning Systems. Dr. Berman has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees and is currently a special adviser to the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. Duncan A. Brown is a principal staff member at the Applied Physics Laboratory of Johns Hopkins University (APL/JHU). His responsibilities include strategic and business planning, wartime assessments oversight, and the creation and execution of a Johns Hopkins National Security Studies and Technology Seminar. Before joining APL/JHU, Mr. Brown served as the principal research and development adviser to the Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Requirements and to the Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet. He received an M.S. in technical management from Johns Hopkins University and an M.S. in ocean engineering from the University of Rhode Island. Marion R. Bryson is director of research and development for North Tree Management, an entrepreneurial activity in Monterey, California. He has held many positions in the federal government, spending 22 years primarily in the operational test arena. He served as scientific adviser at the U.S. Army Combat Development Experimentation Command (CDEC), as director of CDEC, and as technical director of the Test and Experimentation Command. Prior to his government service, Dr. Bryson taught in several colleges and universities, including Duke University. He is past-president of the Military Operations Research Society and recently served on the NRC Panel on Statistical Methods for Testing and Evaluation.

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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces John D. Christie is a senior fellow at the Logistics Management Institute. He has an extensive background in Department of Defense acquisition policy and program analysis. From 1989 to 1993, Dr. Christie served as director of Acquisition Policy and Program Integration for the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Acquisition). In that role he directed the preparation of a comprehensive revision to all defense acquisition policies and procedures resulting in the cancellation and consolidation of 500 prior separate issuances. (He also prepared comprehensive acquisition program alternatives for the Secretary of Defense that resulted in multibillion-dollar budget reductions.) As a former member of Army Science Board, Dr. Christie was called upon to direct reviews of the Army analytical community and operations research activities for the Vice Chief of Staff, including the support of the overall Army acquisition process and its integration with the programming and budgeting process. A member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board, he has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the Commission on Roles and Missions of the Armed Forces that provided recommendations to improve defense management. John A. Corder retired from the U.S. Air Force as a Major General in 1992. General Corder’s background is in U.S. Air Force operational and joint issues. Since his retirement, he has been employed as an independent technical adviser. He has served as an ad hoc adviser to the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board on the subjects of theater battle management, theater air defense, and tactical ballistic missile defense. General Corder is a former command pilot and navigator; he flew more than 100 combat missions over North Vietnam. His military career also included assignments as director of Electronic Combat and commander of the 65th Electronic Combat Air Division with the U.S. Air Force in Europe. He was deputy commander for Air Combat Operations for the Central Command Air Forces in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. General Corder was responsible for the planning and execution of 3,000 combat sorties per day—an effort that involved the coordination of Air Force, Navy, Marine Corps, and Allied aircraft from nine other nations. Paul K. Davis is professor of policy analysis at the RAND Graduate School of Policy Studies and senior scientist and research leader at RAND, where his research interests include defense planning, reengineering and transformation of the U.S. military deterrence theory, new analytic methods and modeling, and strategic planning generally. He has published more than 100 papers and books on these and other subjects. During his tenure at RAND, Dr. Davis has served tours as corporate research manager for defense and technology planning and program manager for strategy planning and assessment. Before joining RAND, he was a senior executive in the Office of the Secretary of Defense (Program Analysis and Evaluation). Dr. Davis has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees and is currently a member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board.

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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces Brig “Chip” Elliott is principal engineer for BBN Technologies. There he has led the design and successful implementation of a number of secure, mission-critical networks based on novel Internet technology for the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom (Near-Term Digital Radio, Joint Tactical Radio System, Iris, Bowman) and has acted as senior adviser on a number of national and commercial networks including three low-Earth-orbit satellite constellations (Discoverer II, Space-Based Infrared Surveillance Low, and Celestri/Teledesic) and Boeing’s Connexion system. Mr. Elliott has particular expertise in wireless Internet technology, mobile ad hoc networks, quality-of-service issues, and novel routing techniques. At present he is leading the design and build-out of a very highly secure network protected by quantum cryptography. He holds more than 70 patents pending or issued on network technology, currently serves on the NRC’s Naval Studies Board, and has participated in a variety of other national advisory panels including the Defense Science Board and Army Science Board. J. Dexter Fletcher is a member of the senior research staff at the Institute for Defense Analyses. A psychologist by training, he is a leading authority on military education and training issues, particularly on aspects related to the use of advanced technologies and human-machine interface. Dr. Fletcher’s research interests include knowledge management, online curriculum development, and virtual reality. He received an M.S. in computer science and a Ph.D. in educational psychology from Stanford University. Richard J. Ivanetich is director of the Computer and Software Engineering Division at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA). Before assuming that position in 1990, he was assistant director of the System Evaluation Division at IDA. Dr. Ivanetich’s research interests are in the areas of defense systems, technology, and operations analyses, and he is primarily concerned with computer and information systems; command, control, and communications systems and procedures, modeling and simulation of systems and forces, crisis management, and strategic and theater nuclear forces. Before joining IDA in 1975, Dr. Ivanetich was assistant professor of physics at Harvard University. He is a member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. L. David Montague, an independent consultant, is retired president of the Missile Systems Division at Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space and a former officer of Lockheed Corporation. A member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), he has more than 40 years of experience in the design, development, and program management of military weapons and their related systems. His expertise includes complex systems engineering and systems integration of ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and unmanned aerial vehicles, as well as exo- and endoatmospheric interceptors engaging these classes of threats. In addition, he is knowledgeable about threat assessment; overhead surveillance systems; cueing technology; battle and engagement management methodology; interceptor design, guidance and control, countermeasures, and discrimination; and the use of directed-

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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces energy weapons for defensive purposes. Mr. Montague is a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and a previous recipient of the AIAA’s Missile Systems Award. He has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the Navy Strategic Systems Steering Task Group and task forces for both the U.S. Army and the Defense Science Board. William B. Morgan recently retired after having spent his entire professional career at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division (formerly the David Taylor Research Center). He retired as head of the Hydromechanics Directorate. From 1951 to 1958, he served as a naval architect in the Propeller Branch. From 1958 to 1962, he served as supervisor of the research and design section of the Propeller Branch. From 1962 to 1970, he served as head of the Propeller Branch. In 1970, he became head of the Naval Hydromechanics Division, and in December 1979, head of the directorate. Dr. Morgan has made significant contributions to the field of naval architecture during his long and distinguished career. He has authored and coauthored numerous papers and reports dealing with a wide variety of subjects in the propulsion area. A member of the National Academy of Engineering, he has served on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees and is currently a member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. Jason Providakes is executive director of the Robust Global Operations Program at MITRE Corporation. He joined MITRE in 1989 as lead scientist; there, his research interests included areas relating to over-the-horizon radar, integrated optics, and command, control, and communications (C3). During his tenure at MITRE, Dr. Providakes has served in key technical roles within the Air Force C3 Center and the Washington C3 Center. He recently led efforts for the Air Force on architecture development, system engineering, and integration activities. Before joining MITRE, Dr. Providakes did graduate work in the Electrical Engineering Department at Cornell University, where he obtained a Ph.D. degree in 1985; from 1985 through 1989, he taught and performed research in the area of radar backscatter to study Earth’s ionosphere. John E. Rhodes retired as Lieutenant General from the U.S. Marine Corps in August 2000. General Rhodes’s last position was as Commanding General of the U.S. Marine Corps Combat Development Command, where he led the Marine Corps in its efforts to develop warfighting concepts and integration of all aspects of doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership, personnel, and facilities to enable the Marine Corps to field combat-ready forces. This responsibility entailed, among other things, careful assessments of current and future operating environments and continuous adaptation of the Marine Corps’s training infrastructure and resources in order to ensure that the integrated capabilities were continuously developed for the Unified Commanders in Chief. William D. Smith retired as Admiral from the U.S. Navy in 1993 after 38 years of active duty service. Admiral Smith’s background is in Navy planning, programming, budgeting, and operational issues. His last assignment was as U.S.

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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces Military Representative to the NATO Military Committee in Brussels, Belgium. Admiral Smith has served in a number of high-ranking capacities for the Chief of Naval Operations. From 1987 to 1991, he served as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations for Logistics and Navy Program Planning. From 1985 to 1987, he was director, Fiscal Management Division/Comptroller of the Navy. He is currently a member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board. Michael G. Sovereign is professor emeritus of command, control, and communications (C3) at the Naval Postgraduate School. Dr. Sovereign’s background is in C3, joint warfare analysis, and acquisition cost-cycle analysis. He was formerly the director of the Institute of Joint Warfare and served as visiting research professor for Headquarters, U.S. Commander in Chief Pacific Fleet, where his responsibilities included conducting research on the Navy’s Virtual Information Center workshops and other experiments aimed at addressing joint C4ISR issues. Dr. Sovereign was also senior principal scientist at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers, Europe (SHAPE) Technical Center (now, NATO C3 Agency), where he participated in major replanning of NATO C3 systems, and once served as director of special projects in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Comptroller), where he directed the revision of the Department of Defense’s planning, programming, and budgeting system and instituted methods for measuring and budgeting for inflation in weapons systems. Dr. Sovereign has authored numerous articles on instructional media, defense logistics, and economics. Mitzi M. Wertheim is a consultant to Enterprise Solutions at the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA); her expertise there is in the application of business process reengineering methods and teaching large corporations to increase service while reducing cost. In recent years, her research interests have focused on naval career, education, and training issues. Before joining CNA, Ms. Wertheim was vice president of Enterprise Solutions at SRA International, Incorporated. At SRA, she creatively applied business process reengineering methods in order to improve productivity and lead to higher levels of service while reducing the costs to large corporations of becoming customer-focused, process-focused, and team-oriented using information technology (IT) as an enabler. Before joining SRA, Ms. Wertheim worked with IBM Federal Systems Company as an enterprise consultant, marketing manager, program manger, and technical assistant. From 1977 to 1981, she was the Deputy Undersecretary of the Navy. A member of the NRC’s Naval Studies Board, Ms. Wertheim has served on numerous committees and scientific advisory boards, including the Council on Foreign Relations and the Advisory Board of the Defense Budget Group. Cindy Williams is a principal research scientist of the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Formerly she was assistant director for national security at the Congressional Budget Office, where she led the National Security Division in studies of budgetary and policy choices related

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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces to defense and international security. Dr. Williams has served as a director and in other capacities at the MITRE Corporation in Bedford, Massachusetts; as a member of the Senior Executive Service in the Office of the Secretary of Defense at the Pentagon; and at RAND in Santa Monica, California. She is the editor and one of several authors of Holding the Line: U.S. Defense Alternatives for the Early 21st Century, a book about defense spending choices for the future. Her areas of specialization include the national security budget, command and control of military forces, conventional air and ground forces, and nuclear weapons. Joseph Zeidner is professor emeritus of administrative sciences and psychology at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, George Washington University (GWU). Dr. Zeidner’s background is in human resources and the factors involved in learning, training, decision making, and job performance. He has written several books on the economic benefits of predicting job performance and estimating the gains of alternative policies in affecting human performance. He has been influential in personnel classification issues and contributed to the Encyclopedia of Human Intelligence. Beforejoining GWU in 1982, Dr. Zeidner served as the technical director of the U.S. Army Research Institute and as chief psychologist of the U.S. Army. Staff Charles F. Draper is acting director at the National Research Council’s Naval Studies Board. He joined the National Research Council in 1997 as program officer, then senior program officer, with the Naval Studies Board and in 2003 became associate director. During his tenure with the Naval Studies Board, Dr. Draper has served as the responsible staff officer on a wide range of topics aimed at helping the Department of the Navy with its scientific, technical, and strategic planning. His recent efforts include topics on network-centric operations, theater missile defense, mine warfare, and nonlethal weapons. Prior to joining the Naval Studies Board, he was the lead mechanical engineer at Sensytech, Inc. (formerly S.T. Research Corporation), where he provided technical and program management support for satellite Earth station and small-satellite design. He received his Ph.D. in mechanical engineering from Vanderbilt University in 1995; his doctoral research was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), where he used an atomic force microscope to measure the nanomechanical properties of thin-film materials. In parallel with his graduate student duties, Dr. Draper was a mechanical engineer with Geo-Centers, Inc., working on-site at NRL on the development of an underwater x-ray backscattering tomography system used for the nondestructive evaluation of U.S. Navy sonar domes on surface ships. Seymour J. Deitchman is a private consultant on national security, research and development management, and systems evaluation. Mr. Deitchman, a

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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces mechanical and aeronautical engineer by training, served at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) as vice president for programs, with responsibility for planning and supervising the IDA research program and ensuring its quality and performance. He was on occasion delegated responsibility to be CEO in the absence of the president of IDA. As a senior research associate subsequent to his retirement from IDA management, he was responsible for projects on tactical aviation, man in space, and man-in-the loop simulation. Before becoming vice president for programs he held other positions at IDA, including assistant vice president for research and vice president for planning and evaluation. As director of the Office of Civil Programs at IDA, he dealt with transportation and with environment and law enforcement issues and systems. Mr. Deitchman was director of Overseas Defense Research at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), where he was responsible for planning and executing ARPA’s R&D program on counterinsurgency and related technical matters in support of U.S. military operations in Southeast Asia and some operations in the Middle East. In the Office of the Director of Defense Research and Engineering, he was special assistant for counterinsurgency. In this position he established the DOD program of R&D support for Southeast Asia operations. Before entering the Department of Defense, Mr. Deitchman held various positions, as an IDA staff member, with the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory (now CALSPAN Corporation), at the Bell Aircraft Corporation, and at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (now NASA), with responsibility for programs having to do with limited war, tactical aviation, Army air mobility, air traffic control, aircraft aerodynamic design, and wind tunnel testing. He has been a member of various government advisory panels, an occasional lecturer at the National War College and Industrial College of the Armed Forces, and a U.S. Delegate to NATO Defense Research Group and the Advisory Group on Aeronautical Research and Development. He is the author of five books and numerous published papers on national security matters.