D
Definitions of Experimentation Terms Used in This Report

Advanced concept technology demonstration (ACTD)

One of three technology transition mechanisms; the other two are ATDs and experiments. ACTDs are used to determine the military utility of proven technology and to develop the concept of operations that will optimize effectiveness. ACTDs are not themselves acquisition programs but are designed to provide a residual, usable capability upon completion and/or transition into acquisition programs. Funding is programmed to support up to 2 years in the field. ACTDs are funded with Advanced Technology Development (ATD) funds. (Defense Acquisition University Glossary, 24 January 2003, http://deskbook.dau.mil/jsp/Glossary.jsp)

Advanced technology demonstration (ATD)

One of three technology transition mechanisms; the other two are ACTDs and experiments. ATDs are used to demonstrate the maturity and potential of advanced technologies for enhanced military operational capability or cost-effectiveness, and to reduce technical risks and uncertainties at the relatively low costs of informal processes. ATDs are funded with Advanced Technology Development (ATD) funds. (Defense Acquisition University Glossary, http://deskbook.dau.mil/jsp/Glossary.jsp)



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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces D Definitions of Experimentation Terms Used in This Report Advanced concept technology demonstration (ACTD) One of three technology transition mechanisms; the other two are ATDs and experiments. ACTDs are used to determine the military utility of proven technology and to develop the concept of operations that will optimize effectiveness. ACTDs are not themselves acquisition programs but are designed to provide a residual, usable capability upon completion and/or transition into acquisition programs. Funding is programmed to support up to 2 years in the field. ACTDs are funded with Advanced Technology Development (ATD) funds. (Defense Acquisition University Glossary, 24 January 2003, http://deskbook.dau.mil/jsp/Glossary.jsp) Advanced technology demonstration (ATD) One of three technology transition mechanisms; the other two are ACTDs and experiments. ATDs are used to demonstrate the maturity and potential of advanced technologies for enhanced military operational capability or cost-effectiveness, and to reduce technical risks and uncertainties at the relatively low costs of informal processes. ATDs are funded with Advanced Technology Development (ATD) funds. (Defense Acquisition University Glossary, http://deskbook.dau.mil/jsp/Glossary.jsp)

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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces Advanced warfighting experiment (AWE) Large-scale warfighting experiments that explore emerging operational concepts and new technologies in an end-to-end manner. (Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen, Annual Report to the Congress, 1998, Chapter 15.) The term was used by the Army for its experiments, beginning in March 1997, designed to explore the brigade-level utility of digitization plans under its Force XXI program; it was later adopted by the Department of Defense, Congress, and others to include military experiments more generally. Battlelab initiative “Battlelab initiatives” originate with Service battle laboratories, and represent innovative or revolutionary concepts for operations or logistics to improve the capability to execute core Service competencies. They are expected to drive changes to organization, doctrine, training requirements, or acquisitions. Command post exercise An exercise in which the forces are simulated, involving the commander, the staff, and communications within and between headquarters. Also called CPX. (Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 12 April 2001 (as amended through 25 September 2002)). Developmental test and evaluation (DT&E) 1. Any testing used to assist in the development and maturation of products, product elements, or manufacturing or support processes. 2. Any engineering-type test used to verify status of technical progress, verify that design risks are minimized, substantiate achievement of contract technical performance, and certify readiness for initial operational testing. Development tests generally require instrumentation and measurements and are accomplished by engineers, technicians, or soldier operator-maintainer test personnel in a controlled environment to facilitate failure analysis. (Defense Acquisition University Glossary, http://deskbook.dau.mil/jsp/Glossary.jsp) DOTMLPF Doctrine, organization, training, materiel, leadership, people, and facilities. Source: Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Manual (CJCSM) 3500.03A, “Joint Training Manual for the Armed Forces of the United States,” 1 September 2002, Glossary Part I – Abbreviations and Acronyms. Available at: http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jel/training_pubs/jtmmaster2002.pdf

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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces Engineering experiment An extension of scientific experiments to explore the technical problems, feasibility, and directions for application of the results of scientific advance to practical devices, machinery, and systems that are applicable to warfare. Exercise A military maneuver or simulated wartime operation involving planning, preparation, and execution. It is carried out for the purpose of training and evaluation. It may be a multinational, joint, or single-Service exercise, depending on participating organizations. (Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 12 April 2001 (as amended through 25 September 2002)). Experimentation campaign An experimentation campaign is a planned and cohesive multi-year program of experimentation built upon a series of experiments and related activities to develop the knowledge needed to inform major decisions about future forces, explore the viability of potential or planned changes to forces or their capabilities, and/or confirm that planned capability development and directions will perform as expected. Field exercise An exercise conducted in the field under simulated war conditions in which troops and armament of one side are actually present, while those of the other side may be imaginary or in outline. (Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 12 April 2001 (as amended through 25 September 2002)). As part of this definition, note that the fielded forces can also include units that simulate enemy systems and tactics to lend realism to the training exercise. Field training exercise An exercise in which actual forces are used to train commanders, staffs, and individual units in basic, intermediate, and advanced-level warfare skills. Also called FTX. (Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 12 April 2001 (as amended through 25 September 2002)). Fleet Battle Experiments (FBEs) A series of Navy experiments begun in the mid-1990s to explore the implications of new technologies and concepts, including C4ISR, using fleet units and usually undertaken while the participating fleet units are engaged in training exercises. FBE Juliet took place during summer 2002.

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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces Joint concept development and experimentation A program sponsored by U.S. Joint Forces Command to explore and refine new concepts of joint warfare. These efforts are similar to Service-unique experimentation, but they involve more than one Service’s forces and are typically planned, managed, and controlled by joint commands. Joint Expeditionary Force Experiment (JEFX) Series of Air Force experiments begun in 1998 (as EFX) to explore experimentally the implications of new technologies, organizations, and concepts, especially in the areas of C4ISR and logistics. Joint experimentation The application of scientific experimentation procedures to assess the effectiveness of proposed (hypothesized) joint warfighting concept elements to ascertain whether elements of a joint warfighting concept cause changes in military effectiveness. Joint Warfighting Capabilities Assessment A team of warfighting and functional area experts from the Joint Staff, unified commands, Services, Office of the Secretary of Defense, and Defense agencies tasked by the Joint Requirements Oversight Council with completing assessments and providing military recommendations to improve joint warfighting capabilities. Also called JWCA. (Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 12 April 2001 (as amended through 25 September 2002)). Joint warrior interoperability demonstrations A series of biennial joint demonstrations coordinated by the Joint Staff to evaluate technologies from the private sector in a military environment, and to identify warfighter and C4I interoperability requirements and issues. The demonstrations are sponsored by a different combatant commander and led by a different Service every other year. (Derived from two sources: Joint Staff budget estimates for FY 2003; C4I for the Warrior, January 1998.) Limited-objective experiment (LOE) A relatively narrowly focused warfighting experiment that may be carried out by the Navy, Marines, or the U.S. Joint Forces Command, designed to explore a single issue or capability, not embedded in the fleet or in Marine units of significant size.

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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces Military experiment A military activity conducted to discover, test, demonstrate, or explore future military concepts, organizations, and equipment and the interplay among them, using a combination of actual, simulated, and surrogate forces and equipment. (Chapter 2). Model A representation of an actual or conceptual system that involves mathematics, logical expressions, or computer simulations that can be used to predict how the system might perform or survive under various conditions or in a range of hostile environments. (Defense Acquisition University Glossary, http://deskbook.dau.mil/jsp/Glossary.jsp) Scientific experiment Consists of the traditional problem statement, hypothesis, test, recording of results, conclusions, and recommendations for further work to advance the state of knowledge in a particular field of science. Simulation A method for implementing a model. It is the process of conducting experiments with a model for the purpose of understanding the behavior of the system modeled under selected conditions or of evaluating various strategies for the operation of the system within the limits imposed by developmental or operational criteria. Simulation may include the use of analog or digital devices, laboratory models, or “testbed” sites. Simulations are usually programmed for solution on a computer; however, in the broadest sense, military exercises, and war games are also simulations. (Defense Acquisition University Glossary, http://deskbook.dau.mil/jsp/Glossary.jsp) Spiral development “An iterative process for developing a defined set of capabilities within one increment. This process provides the opportunity for interaction between the user, tester, and developer. In this process, the requirements are refined through experimentation and risk management, there is continuous feedback, and the user is provided the best possible capability within the increment. Each increment may include a number of spirals. Spiral development implements evolutionary acquisition.” Quoted from Memorandum from Under Secretary of Defense E.C. Aldridge, Jr., to the secretaries of the military departments and others, dated April 12, 2002.

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The Role of Experimentation in Building Future Naval Forces Test and evaluation (T&E) Process by which a system or components are exercised and results analyzed to provide performance-related information. The information has many uses including risk identification and risk mitigation and empirical data to validate models and simulations. T&E enables an assessment of the attainment of technical performance, specifications and system maturity to determine whether systems are operationally effective, suitable and survivable for intended use, and/or lethal. There are three distinct types of T&E defined in statute or regulation: Developmental (DT&E), Operational (OT&E), and Live Fire (LFT&E). (Defense Acquisition University Glossary, http://deskbook.dau.mil/jsp/Glossary.jsp) War game A simulation, by whatever means, of a military operation involving two or more opposing forces using rules, data, and procedures designed to depict an actual or assumed real life situation. (Joint Publication 1-02, Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms, 12 April 2001 (as amended through 25 September 2002)).