Penelope Smith worked temporarily with the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board between February and July 2004 as a senior program assistant. Prior to joining the National Academies, she worked in rural Angola as a health project manager and community health advisor for Concern Worldwide. She also worked for Emory University as a project coordinator and researcher on reproductive health and HIV, and for the Centers for Disease Control as a technology transfer evaluator for HIV/AIDS programs. She earned an M.P.H. from Emory University and a B.A. in medical anthropology from the University of California at Santa Cruz. She is also a certified health education specialist.