they can be picked up by industry. Where that point of transition between academia and industry is located has shifted today toward academia, because we don’t have as many large industrial labs that work at the breadth and depth they used to.”

Because of industry’s reduced ability to do long-term research, he suggested additional government investments in the university research community for programs that can move the technology closer to the commercialization stage than was the practice 10 to 20 years ago. If this is not done, he projected, some of the innovations that will be needed probably won’t appear—“at least not in this country.”

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