recognizes the pervasive role of S&T in development and may be somewhat broader than traditional definitions focusing on research and science and engineering education.

From the vantage-point of developing countries, S&T describe extensive interconnected national and international systems of activities that encourage the acquisition and generation of important knowledge and the application of this knowledge to improve the quality of life and security of populations. Thus, S&T are fundamental building blocks for development. Recent reports from the World Bank, the OECD, and a group of more than 90 Academies of Sciences located throughout the world underline the important role of S&T in reducing poverty and promoting economic growth in countries at all levels of development.

In the context of U.S. foreign assistance, S&T encompass the capacity of the public and private sectors in developing countries to:

  • provide technical services that support economic and social development activities—services such as health care, education, agriculture extension, information dissemination, transportation, communications, maintenance and upgrading of water supplies and sanitation facilities, provision of energy, and environmental improvement;

  • carry out research, development, technology transfer, technology adaptation, and technology application activities;

  • produce industrial goods and agricultural products based on suitable technologies and modern management methods;

  • assess the technical and economic merits of technologies being considered for use in the country;

  • prepare and monitor implementation of economic, trade, industrial, agricultural, health, education, environmental, and other policies that have technical dimensions or that influence the acquisition and use of technical resources;

  • develop, manage, and disseminate information of importance for all aspects of development;

  • participate in international trade negotiations, environmental treaty discussions, and other types of dialogues involving technical issues that are of political, economic, and social importance;

  • conduct programs that heighten public awareness of the potential of modern technologies to improve the well being of the public; and

  • develop an appropriate physical infrastructure, the manpower base, and educational and training institutions to support the foregoing activities.

To support these activities USAID should have S&T capabilities to:

  • assess the S&T capacity of developing countries and design programs that contribute to the development and maintenance of this capacity;

  • evaluate available technologies and encourage development of emerging technologies that are relevant to USAID’s interests;

  • incorporate technologies, research findings, and modern management methods in USAID projects while facilitating the transfer of these methods and technologies to developing countries;

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