This chapter has reviewed a number of applications of ecosystem valuation ranging from economic valuation of a single ecosystem service to attempts to value all services for an ecosystem and even for the entire planet. The valuation of ecosystem services is still relatively new and requires the integration of ecology and other natural sciences with economics. Such integration is not easy to accomplish. Still, examples of approaches and interdisciplinary studies that provide such integration indicate successful beginnings. Some of the lessons emerging from the case studies reviewed in the previous sections are discussed below.

Extent of Ecological and Economic Information for Valuing Ecosystem Services

As examples in this chapter have shown, the ability to generate useful information about the value of ecosystem services varies widely across cases. For some policy questions, enough is known about ecosystem service valuation to help in decision-making. A good example is the value of providing drinking water for New York City by protecting watersheds in the Catskills rather than building a more costly filtration system. As other examples make clear, knowledge and information may not yet be sufficient at present to estimate the value of ecosystem services with enough precision to answer policy-relevant questions.

The inability to generate sufficiently precise and reliable estimates of ecosystem values for purposes of informing decision-making may arise from any combination of the following three reasons: (1) there may be insufficient ecological knowledge or information to estimate the quantity of ecosystem services produced or to estimate how ecosystem service production would change under alternative scenarios; (2) existing economic methods may be unable to generate reliable and uncontroversial estimates of value for the provision of various levels of ecosystem services; and (3) there may be a lack of integration of ecological and economic analysis.

Much of the difficulty in generating reliable estimates of the value of ecosystem services derives from the fact that ecosystems are complex and dynamic and our understanding of them is typically incomplete or flawed. Learning how such ecosystems evolve and change as inputs to the system change can be a slow process (perhaps not even as fast at the system itself is changing). The example of the Everglades and the difficulty in designing a restoration plan aptly illustrate problems inherent in attempting to understand and manage aquatic ecosystems because the links from ecosystem condition and function to the production of goods and services may be hard to decipher. Other examples reviewed include fish production in coastal wetlands and salmon production in the Columbia River, where changes in ocean currents, flow of nutrient, water temperature,

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