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FRAMEWORKS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION IN HOMELAND SECURITY Committee on Educational Paradigms for Homeland Security Policy and Global Affairs

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Gov- erning Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engi- neering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for ap- propriate balance. This study was supported by Grant No. N00014-05-1-0011 between the National Academies and the Department of Homeland Security, as administered through the Office of Naval Research. The views presented in this report are those of the National Research Council Committee on Educational Paradigms for Homeland Security and are not necessarily those of the funding agencies. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09295-7 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu. Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating soci- ety of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedi- cated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its mem- bers, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advis- ing the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Insti- tute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sci- ences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal gov- ernment. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Acad- emy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing ser- vices to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communi- ties. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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COMMITTEE ON EDUCATIONAL PARADIGMS FOR HOMELAND SECURITY Irwin Feller (Chair), Senior Visiting Scientist, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) Johnnie Carson, Senior Vice President, National Defense University Max M. Houck, Director, Forensic Science Initiative, West Virginia University Heather Kiriakou, Intelligence Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations Arie W. Kruglanski, Distinguished Professor of Psychology, University of Maryland Monica Schoch-Spana, Senior Fellow, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Center for Biosecurity Debra Stewart, President, Council of Graduate Schools Principal Project Staff Merrilea Mayo, Director, Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable Yvette White, Senior Research Associate, Government-University- Industry Research Roundtable Denise Greene, Administrative Coordinator, Government-University- Industry Research Roundtable Hsiu-Ming Saunders, Intern, Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable v

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Acknowledgments This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspective and technical expertise, in accordance with pro- cedures approved by the National Academies Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional stan- dards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the committee charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Lewis Branscomb, Harvard University; Gilbert Merkx, Duke Uni- versity; Greg Moser, University of Denver; Thomas Schelling, University of Maryland; John Steinbruner, University of Maryland; and Thomas Terndrup, University of Alabama, Birmingham. Although the reviewers listed above provided constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or rec- ommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by John Bailar, University of Chicago. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was respon- sible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. The following corrections are contained in this revised version of the vii

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viii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS original report: on page 9, the Coast Guard was removed from the listing of homeland security-related career opportunities. The Coast Guard is part of the Department of Homeland Security and should not be singled out as a standalone entity. On page 20, the number of fellowships pro- vided by the Department of Homeland Security was overstated. The cor- rect number of fellowships currently offered is 50.

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Contents Introduction 1 What Is Homeland Security? 3 What Is the Role of the Higher Education Community in Homeland Security? 5 Parallels Between Homeland Security and Area Studies, International Relations, and Science Policy 9 Current and Proposed Educational Programs in Homeland Security 15 Summary 23 Appendixes A Committee Member Biographies 25 B Workshop Agenda 31 C Workshop Speaker Biographies 35 D Workshop Participants 41 E Sample Organizations Offering Homeland Security Education Programs 45 ix

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