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Appendix A Committee Member Biographies Irwin Feller (Committee Chair) is currently a senior visiting scientist at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, having recently completed 24 years as the director of Penn State's Institute for Policy Re- search and Evaluation. He also serves as a professor emeritus of Penn State's Department of Economics, where he was on the faculty for nearly three decades. Dr. Feller received his Ph.D. in economics from the Univer- sity of Minnesota and his B.A. in economics from the City University of New York. Dr. Feller has a long history of publishing scholarly articles on organi- zational structure and function and its effect on the creation of knowledge and societal benefits, using both universities and government programs as objects of study. This expertise has been applied to problems of the nucleation and growth of new scientific fields, to the anatomy and func- tion of interdisciplinary research programs, to the effectiveness of various technology transfer mechanisms, to the metrics used to evaluate research in government programs, and to a host of other mechanisms and institu- tions of importance to the scientific enterprise. Dr. Feller has served on six National Academies committees. From 2002 to 2004, Irwin Feller served as the chair of the National Science Foundation's Advisory Committee to the Assistant Director of Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, a com- mittee of which he has been a member since 1999. Johnnie Carson joined the National Defense University as senior vice president in August 2003 upon his return from the Republic of Kenya, where he served as U.S. ambassador from August 1999 to July 2003. Dur- 25

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26 APPENDIX A ing his tour in Kenya, Ambassador Carson was responsible for rebuilding and restoring full diplomatic services at the U.S. embassy in Nairobi fol- lowing its destruction by terrorists in 1998. Prior to this assignment to Kenya, he served as principal deputy assistant secretary for the Bureau of African Affairs at the Department of State. Ambassador Carson is a career member of the Senior Foreign Service, Class of Career Minister. Ambassa- dor Carson has also served as the U.S. ambassador to Zimbabwe (1995- 1997) and to Uganda (1991-1994). Ambassador Carson served as staff officer in the staff secretariat in the Office of the Secretary of State from 1978 to 1979. He held the assign- ment of deputy political counselor at the American Embassy in Lisbon, Portugal, from 1982 to 1986. Before joining the Foreign Service, Mr. Carson was a Peace Corps volunteer in Tanzania from 1965 to 1968. Ambassador Carson received his undergraduate education from Drake University where he earned a bachelor of arts in history and politi- cal science and his graduate education from the School of Oriental and Africa Studies at the University of London where he was awarded a mas- ter of arts in international relations. Ambassador Carson is the recipient of several Superior Honor Awards from the Department of State and a Meri- torious Service Award from Secretary of State Madeleine Albright. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention presented Ambassador Carson its highest award, Champion of Prevention Award, for his leader- ship in directing the U.S. government's HIV/AIDS prevention efforts in Kenya. Max M. Houck currently uses his expertise as a trace evidence expert and forensic anthropologist in his capacity as director for the Forensic Science Initiative at West Virginia University (WVU). Using the technology incu- bator at WVU, Max Houck has also formed the nonprofit Institute for Cold Case Evaluation, providing police with free or discounted assistance from at least two dozen of the country's top behind-the-scenes forensic scientists. Just before he joined WVU, Mr. Houck was assigned to Dover Air Force Base, Delaware, to assist with identification of the victims of the 9/11 Pentagon attack. Mr. Houck worked on more than 800 other cases in his assignment to the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) laboratory from 1992 to 2001. He has been the recipient of both a Quality Award from the FBI laboratory and the American Society of Testing and Materi- als Forensic Science Award in 2000. Prior to his career at the FBI, Mr. Houck was the forensic anthropolo- gist and a trace evidence examiner at the Medical Examiner's Office in Fort Worth, Texas. While at that office, he coordinated the anthropologi- cal recovery and scientific examinations of the Branch Davidian com- pound near Waco, Texas. Mr. Houck is a graduate of Michigan State Uni-

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27 APPENDIX A versity and a fellow of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences, among other professional organizations. He has coauthored and edited two books of forensic case reviews, Mute Witnesses (2001) and Trace Evi- dence Analysis (2003), published by Academic Press. Currently, he is work- ing on an upper-level introductory forensic science textbook. Heather Kiriakou graduated with an M.A. in security studies from Georgetown University in 2003. From 1997 to the present, Ms. Kiriakou has worked as a Middle East analyst for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) where she has earned several awards for her exceptional perfor- mance. Prior to her work at the CIA, Ms. Kiriakou received a B.S. degree in foreign service and worked for two years as a program manager at the Office of the Secretary of Defense, managing the Mentor-Protg program. Currently Ms. Kiriakou is in the midst of a one-year term as an intelli- gence fellow with the Council on Foreign Relations. She has expertise in Middle Eastern politics, strategy, and leadership dynamics; intelligence; and national security. Arie W. Kruglanski is a social psychologist specializing in how people form judgments, beliefs, impressions, and attitudes and what conse- quences this has for their interpersonal relations, their interaction in groups, and their feelings about various "out groups." A major academic contribution has been Dr. Kruglanski's formulation of a theory of lay epistemics that specifies how thought and motivation interface in the for- mation of subjective knowledge. His work on this and related topics has been disseminated in more than 150 articles, chapters, and books and has been supported continuously by grants from the National Science Foun- dation and the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr. Kruglanski has a broad perspective on what is known and not known about the social sci- ence aspects of terrorism, having previously served on the National Re- search Council (NRC) committee that authored the reports, Terrorism: Per- spectives from the Behavioral and Social Sciences and Discouraging Terrorism: Implications of 9/11. Dr. Kruglanski is the recipient of the National Institute of Mental Health Research Scientist Award, the Humboldt Forschungspreis (life achievement award), and the Donald Campbell Award for Outstanding Contributions to Social Psychology. He was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences and is a fellow of both the American Psychological Association and the American Psychological So- ciety. He has served as associate editor of American Psychologist and as chief editor of the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin and the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Attitudes and Social Cognition section.

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28 APPENDIX A Monica Schoch-Spana is a medical anthropologist. Prior to joining the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC), she worked for five years at the Johns Hopkins Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies. Dr. Schoch-Spana received her B.A. from Bryn Mawr College in 1986 and her Ph.D. in cultural anthropology from the Johns Hopkins University in 1998. In recent years, Dr. Schoch-Spana has performed extensive scholarly work on community responses to and public communication needs during ter- rorist attacks and health crises. Her scientific investigations of relevant case studies include the 1918 pandemic influenza, the 1999 West Nile Vi- rus, the 2001 World Trade Center attacks, and the anthrax letters crisis. Select publications include "Bioterrorism and the Public: How to Vacci- nate a City Against Panic," "Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2002," and "Edu- cating, Informing and Mobilizing the Public," in Terrorism and Public Health, B. Levy and V. Sidel, eds., Oxford University Press, 2002, 2003. Recently she organized the 2003 national leadership summit "The Public as an Asset, Not a Problem." Dr. Schoch-Spana also chairs the Working Group on Governance Di- lemmas in Bioterrorism Response, a group charged with enhancing the ability of mayors, governors, and health authorities to reduce the disrup- tive quality of biological attacks and government responses to them. She is additionally a principal investigator for a national study of public com- munication experiences during the anthrax attacks and has served as a technical adviser to the Ad Council's national campaign on emergency preparedness. Debra Stewart is president of the Council of Graduate Schools, the lead- ing national organization dedicated to the improvement and advancement of graduate education. Dr. Stewart has a Ph.D. in political science from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. Until July 2000, when she joined the Council of Graduate Schools, she was vice chancellor and dean of the Graduate School at North Carolina State University. She also served as interim chancellor at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Dr. Stewart has been an active leader in higher education nationally as chair of the Board of Directors of the Council of Graduate Schools, the Graduate Record Examination Board, the Council on Research Policy and Graduate Education, and the Board of Directors of Oak Ridge Associated Universities. She also served as vice chair of the Board of Trustees of the Educational Testing Service and as a trustee of the Triangle University Center for Advanced Studies. Dr. Stewart was a member of the NRC Com- mittee on the Assessment of the Research Doctorate and currently serves on the NRC's Board on Higher Education and Workforce, the Advisory Board for the Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate, the Advisory Council for the Responsive Ph.D. Project, and the American Council on Education

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29 APPENDIX A Board. She also chairs the Steering Committee of the Higher Education Secretariat in Washington. Dr. Stewart is author, coauthor, and editor of books and numerous scholarly articles on administrative theory and public policy. She lectures internationally on graduate education issues and challenges. Her research focuses on ethics in managerial decision making. Her recent work, sup- ported by the National Science Foundation, explored attitudes and moral reasoning styles among public officials in Poland and Russia.

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