deltaic sequences, and lake-deposited (lacustrine) clays. Common rock systems include limestone, dolomite, sandstone, shale, interbedded sandstone and shale, extrusive volcanic flow sequences, intrusive granitic bodies, and metamorphic systems of crystalline rock. To varying degrees these systems can be fractured, cemented, and/or opened by dissolution (karst). This diversity makes it challenging to develop general statements regarding the characteristics of source zones, the efficacy of remedial technologies, and what endpoints are attainable. For example, the flow of groundwater or remedial fluids (such as surfactants) is substantially different in beach sand than in karst systems, and the tools required to characterize alluvium are substantially different than tools used to characterize rock.
Five general hydrogeologic settings that are broadly representative of the common conditions of concern are illustrated in Figure 2-1. The differentiating features between the five settings are the spatial variations in permeability and porosity (see Box 2-1, which describes the terminology relevant to the following discussion). These parameters control the mechanisms by which contaminants are stored and released from source zones under natural and engineered conditions. The scale (size) of the representative hydrogeologic settings is envisioned