able to inform the other in important ways (see Caswell and John, 1992). Some candidate populations for such a study are the Puget Sound killer whales (Krahn et al., 2002), the North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis; Waring et al., 2003), bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay (Wells, 2003), the gray seals of Sable Island (Austin et al., 2004), and the northern elephant seals of Año Nuevo Island (LeBoeuf et al., 2000). All those have been studied extensively, and individual animals have been identified and resighted over multiple years. For most of the populations, the demographics are well defined; in some, the effects of major environmental stressors, such as an El Niño or the North Atlantic Oscillation, have been observed (Fujiwara and Caswell, 2001; Greene and Pershing, 2004). Such complex interdisciplinary modeling has been undertaken by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

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