References

Abbott, C.A., M.W. Berry, E.J. Comiskey, L.J. Gross and H.K. Luh. 1997. Parallel individual-based modeling of Everglades deer ecology. IEEE Computational Science and Engineering 4(4):60-72.

Alberts, S.C. and J. Altmann. 1995. Preparation and activation: determinants of age at reproductive maturity in male baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 36:397-406.

Alberts. S.C., R.M. Sapolsky and J. Altmann. 1992. Behavioral, endocrine, and immunological correlates of immigration by an aggressive male into a natural primate group. Hormones and Behavior 26:167-178.

Altmann, J. and P. Muruthi. 1988. Differences in daily life between semi-provisioned and wild-feeding baboons. American Journal of Primatology 15:213-222.

Altmann, J., G. Hausfater and S.A. Altmann. 1988. Determinants of reproductive success in savannah baboons Papio cynocephalus. Pp. 403-418 in Reproductive Success, T.H. Clutton-Brock, Ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois.

Altmann, J., D. Schoeller, S.A. Altmann, P. Muruthi and R.M. Sapolsky. 1993. Body size and fatness of free living baboons reflect food availability and activity levels. American Journal of Primatology 30:149-161.

Altmann, J. and S.C. Alberts. 2003. Intraspecific variability in fertility and offspring survival in a nonhuman primate: behavioral control of ecological and social sources. Pp. 140-169 in Offspring: The Biodemography of Fertility and Family Behavior, K.W. Wachter and R.A. Bulatao, Eds. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Andelman, S.J., S. Beissinger, J. Fitts Cochrane, L. Gerber, P. Gomez-Priego, C. Groves, J. Haufler, R. Holthausen, D. Lee, L. Maguire, B. Noon, K. Ralls and H. Regan. 2001. Scientific standards for conducting viability assessments under the National Forest Management Act: report and recommendations of the NCEAS working Group. National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara, California.

Anderson, J.L. 1998. Embracing uncertainty. Conservation Ecology 2:2.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 87
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects References Abbott, C.A., M.W. Berry, E.J. Comiskey, L.J. Gross and H.K. Luh. 1997. Parallel individual-based modeling of Everglades deer ecology. IEEE Computational Science and Engineering 4(4):60-72. Alberts, S.C. and J. Altmann. 1995. Preparation and activation: determinants of age at reproductive maturity in male baboons. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 36:397-406. Alberts. S.C., R.M. Sapolsky and J. Altmann. 1992. Behavioral, endocrine, and immunological correlates of immigration by an aggressive male into a natural primate group. Hormones and Behavior 26:167-178. Altmann, J. and P. Muruthi. 1988. Differences in daily life between semi-provisioned and wild-feeding baboons. American Journal of Primatology 15:213-222. Altmann, J., G. Hausfater and S.A. Altmann. 1988. Determinants of reproductive success in savannah baboons Papio cynocephalus. Pp. 403-418 in Reproductive Success, T.H. Clutton-Brock, Ed. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. Altmann, J., D. Schoeller, S.A. Altmann, P. Muruthi and R.M. Sapolsky. 1993. Body size and fatness of free living baboons reflect food availability and activity levels. American Journal of Primatology 30:149-161. Altmann, J. and S.C. Alberts. 2003. Intraspecific variability in fertility and offspring survival in a nonhuman primate: behavioral control of ecological and social sources. Pp. 140-169 in Offspring: The Biodemography of Fertility and Family Behavior, K.W. Wachter and R.A. Bulatao, Eds. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Andelman, S.J., S. Beissinger, J. Fitts Cochrane, L. Gerber, P. Gomez-Priego, C. Groves, J. Haufler, R. Holthausen, D. Lee, L. Maguire, B. Noon, K. Ralls and H. Regan. 2001. Scientific standards for conducting viability assessments under the National Forest Management Act: report and recommendations of the NCEAS working Group. National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara, California. Anderson, J.L. 1998. Embracing uncertainty. Conservation Ecology 2:2.

OCR for page 87
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects Austin, D., W.D. Bowen and J.I. McMillan. 2004. Intraspecific variation in movement patterns: Using quantitative analyses to characterize individual movement behaviour in a large marine predator. Oikos 105:15-30. Barlow, J. and P.J. Clapham. 1997. A new birth-interval approach to estimating demographic parameters of humpback whales. Ecology 78:535-546. Bauman, D.E. 2000. Regulation of nutrient partitioning during lactation: homeostasis and homeorhesis revisited. Pp. 311-327 in Ruminant Physiology: Digestion, Metabolism and Growth and Reproduction, P.J. Cronje, Ed. CAB Publishing, New York, New York.. Bekoff, M. and J.A. Byers. 1998. Animal play: Evolutionary, comparative, and ecological perspectives . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Block, B.A., D.P. Costa, G.W. Boehlert and R.E. Kochevar. 2003. Revealing pelagic habitat use: the tagging of Pacific pelagics program. Oceanologica Acta 25:255-266. Boness, D.J. and W.D. Bowen. 1996. The evolution of maternal care in pinnipeds. BioScience 46:645-654. Boyd, I. 2002. Energetics: consequences for fitness. Pp. 247-277 in Marine Mammal Biology: an evolutionary approach, A. Rus Hoelzel, Ed. Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom. Brault, S. and H. Caswell. 1993. Pod-specific demography of killer whales (Orcinus orca). Ecology 74:1444-1454. Brownell, R.L., Jr. and D.W. Weller. 2002. Prolonged calving intervals in Western gray whales: nutritional stress and pregnancy. Paper SC/54/BRG12 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, April 2002. 13 pp. This document is available from the office of the International Whaling Commission, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Brownell, R.L., Jr., T. Yamada, J.G. Mead and A. van Helden. 2004. Mass strandings of Cuvier’s beaked whales in Japan: U.S. Naval Acoustic Link? Paper SC/56/E37 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, July 2004. 10 pp. This document is available from the office of the International Whaling Commission, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Bryant, P.J., C.M. Lafferty and S.K. Lafferty. 1984. Reoccupation of Laguna Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico, by gray whales. Pp. 375-386 in The Gray Whale Eschrichtius robustus, M.L. Jones, et al., Eds. Academic Press, Orlando, Florida. Buchanan, K.L. and A.R. Goldsmith. 2004. Noninvasive endocrine data for behavioral studies: the importance of validation. Animal Behavior 67:183-185. Burgess, W.C. 2001. A general-purpose acoustic recording tag for marine wildlife. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 110:2722-2723. Caswell, H. 1989. Matrix population models. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts. Caswell, H. 2001. Matrix population models. Second edition. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts. Caswell, H. and M. Fujiwara. 2004. Beyond survival estimation: mark-recapture, matrix population models, and population dynamics. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation (in press). Caswell, H. and A.M. John. 1992. From the individual to the population in demographic models. Pp. 36-61 in Individual-based Models and Approaches in Ecology, D. Deangelis and L. Gross, Eds. Chapman and Hill, New York, New York. Caswell, H., S. Brault, A. Read and T. Smith. 1998. Harbor porpoise and fisheries: an uncertainty analysis of incidental mortality. Ecological Applications 8:1226-1238.

OCR for page 87
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects Cavieres, M.F., J. Jaeger and W. Porter. 2002. Developmental toxicity of a commercial herbicide mixture in mice: 1. Effects on embryo implantation and litter size. Environmental Health Perspectives 110:1081-1085. Cavigelli, S.A. and M.K. McClintock. 2003. Fear of novelty in infant rats predicts adult corticosterone dynamics and an early death. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100:16131-16136. Clapham, P.J., S.B. Young and R.L. Brownell Jr. 1999. Baleen whales: conservation issues and the status of the most endangered populations. Mammal Review 29:35-60. Cooke, J.G. 1994. The management of whaling. Aquatic Mammalogy 20:129-135. Cosens, S.E. and L.P. Dueck. 1988. Responses of migrating narwhal and beluga to icebreaker traffic at the Admiralty Inlet ice-edge, N.W.T. in 1986. Pp. 39-54 in Port and Ocean Engineering Under Arctic Conditions, Volume II, W.M. Sackinger, et al., Eds. Geophysics Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 111pp. Costa, D.P., B.J. Le Boeuf, A.C. Huntley and C.L. Ortiz. 1986. The energetics of lactation in the northern elephant seal, Mirounga angustirostris. Journal of Zoology Series A 209:21-34. Costa, D.P. 1991. Reproductive and foraging energetics of pinnipeds: implications for life-history patterns. Pp. 300-344 in Behavior of Pinnipeds, D. Renouf, Ed. Chapman and Hall, London, United Kingdom. Costa, D.P. 1993. The relationship between reproductive and foraging energetics in the evolution of the Pinnipedia. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 66:293-314. Costa, D.P., D.E. Crocker, J. Gedamke, P.M. Webb, D.S. Houser, S.B. Blackwell, D. Waples, S.A. Hayes and B.J. Le Boeuf. 2003. The effect of a low-frequency sound source (acoustic thermometry of the ocean climate) on the diving behavior of juvenile northern elephant seals, Mirounga angustirostris. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 113(2):1155-1165. Cox, T.M., A.J. Read, A. Solow and N. Trengenza. 2001. Will harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) habituate to pingers? Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 3(1):81-86. Creel, S., J.E. Fox, A. Hardy, J. Sands, B. Garrott and R.O. Peterson. 2002. Snowmobile activity and glucocorticoid stress responses in wolves and elk. Conservation Biology 16(3):809-814. Croll, D.A., C.W. Clark, J. Calambokidis, W.T. Ellison and B.R. Tershy. 2001. Effect of anthropogenic low frequency noise on the foraging ecology of Balaenoptera whales. Animal Conservation 4:13-27. Crouse, D.T., L.B. Crowder and H. Caswell. 1987. A stage-based population model for loggerhead sea turtles and implications for conservation. Ecology 68:1412-1423. Crum, L. A. and Y. Mao. 1996. Acoustically enhanced bubble growth at low frequencies and its implications for human diver and marine mammal safety. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 99:2898-2907. D’Amico, A. Ed. 1998. Summary record SACLANTCEN Bioacoustics Panel, La Spezia, Italy, 15-17 June, 1998. SACLANTCEN M-133, SACLANT Undersea Research Centre, San Diego, California, 128 pp. [Online] Available at: http://enterprise.spawar.navy.mil/nepa/whales/bioacoust.cfm [September 22, 2004]. Deecke, V.B., P.J.B. Slater and J.K.B. Ford. 2002. Selective habituation shapes acoustic predator recognition in harbour seals. Nature 420:171-173.

OCR for page 87
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects Doroff, A.M., J.A. Estes, T.M. Tinker, D.M. Burn and T.J. Evans. 2003. Sea otter population declines in the Aleutian archipelago. Journal of Mammalogy 84:55-64. Evans, D.L. and G.R. England. 2001. Joint interim report: Bahamas marine mammal stranding event of 15-16 March 2000. US Department of Commerce and US Navy, Government Printing Press, Washington, DC, 59 pp. [Online]. Available at: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/prot_res/PR2/Health_and_Stranding_Response_Program/Interim_Bahamas_Report.pdf [May 25, 2004]. Evans, G.W., S. Hygge and M. Bullinger. 1995. Chronic noise and psychological stress. Psychological Science 6:333-338. Evans, G.W., P. Lercher, M. Meis, H. Ising and W.W. Kofler. 2001. Community noise exposure and stress in children. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 109:1023-1027. Finley, K.J., G.W. Miller, R.A. Davis and C.R. Greene. 1990. Reactions of belugas, (Delphinapterus leucas) and narwhals (Monodon monoceros) to ice-breaking ships in the Canadian high arctic. Canadian Bulletin of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 224:97-117. Finneran, J.J. 2003. Whole-lung resonance in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) and white whale (Delphinapterus leucas). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 114:529-535. Finneran, J.J. and C.E. Schlundt. 2004. Effects of intense pure tones on the behavior of trained odontocetes. Report of the Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego, California, 15pp. Finneran, J.J., C.E. Schlundt, D.A. Carder, J. Clark, J.A. Young, J.B. Gaspin and S.H. Ridgway. 2000. Auditory and behavioral responses of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and a beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) to impulsive sounds resembling distant signatures of underwater explosions. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 108(1):417-431. Finneran, J.J., C.E. Schlundt, R. Dear, D.A. Carder and S.H. Ridgway. 2002. Temporary shift in masked hearing thresholds in odontocetes after exposure to single underwater impulses from a seismic watergun. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 111(6):2929-2940. Fish, J.F. and J.S. Vania. 1971. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) sounds repel white whales (Delphinapterus leucas). Fishery Bulletin 69:531-535. Frankel, A.S., W.T. Ellison and J. Buchanan. 2002. Application of the Acoustic Integration Model (AIM) to predict and minimize environmental impacts. Oceans ‘02 MTS/IEEE 3:1438-1443. Fristrup, K.M., L.T. Hatch and C.W. Clark. 2003. Variation in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) song length in relation to low-frequency sound broadcasts. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 113(6):3411-3424. Frost, K.J., L.F. Lowry and R.R. Nelson. 1984. Belukha whale studies in Bristol Bay, Alaska. Workshop on biological interactions among marine mammals and commercial fisheries in the southeastern Bering Sea, University of Alaska, Anchorage. Fujiwara, M. 2002. Mark-recapture statistics and demographic analysis. Ph.D. Dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Joint Program (WHOI) in Oceanography/Applied Ocean Science and Engineering, MIT, Cambridge and WHOI, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

OCR for page 87
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects Fujiwara, M. and H. Caswell. 2001. Demography of the endangered North Atlantic right whale. Nature 414:537-541. Fujiwara, M. and H. Caswell. 2002a. Estimating population projection matrices from multistage mark-recapture data. Ecology 83:3257-3265 Fujiwara, M. and H. Caswell. 2002b. A general approach to temporary emigration in mark-recapture analysis. Ecology 83:3266-3275. Geraci, J.R. and V.J. Lounsbury. 1993. Marine mammals ashore: A field guide for Strandings. Texas A&M University Sea Grant College Program, Galveston, Texas. Goodwin, P. and G. Wright. 1991. Decision analysis for management judgment. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom. Goold, J.C. 1996. Acoustic assessment of populations of common dolphin Delphinus delphis in conjunction with seismic surveying. Journal of the Marine Biology Association, United Kingdom 76:811-820. Goymann, W. and J.C. Wingfield. 2004. Allostatic load, social status and stress hormones: The costs of social status matter. Animal Behavior 67:591-602. Greene, C.H. and A.J. Pershing. 2004. Climate and the conservation biology of North Atlantic right whales: the right whale at the wrong time? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2:29-34. Grimm, V. 1999. Ten years of individual-based modeling in ecology: what have we learned and what could we learn in the future? Ecological Modeling 115:129-148. Gross, K., B.A. Craig and W.D. Hutchinson. 2002. Bayesian estimation of a demographic matrix model from stage-frequency data. Ecology 83:3285-3298. Harwood, J. 2000. Risk assessment and decision analysis in conservation. Biological Conservation 95:219-226. Harwood, J. 2002. Mitigating the effects of acoustic disturbance in the oceans. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 12:485-8. Heide-Jorgensen, M.P., T. Harkonen and P. Aberg. 1992. Long-term effects of epizootic in harbor seals in the Kattegat-Skagerrak and adjacent areas. Ambio 21:511-516. Hermann, A.J., S. Hinckley, B.A. Megrey and J.M. Napp. 2001. Applied and theoretical considerations for constructing spatially explicit Individual-Based Models of marine fish early life history which include multiple trophic levels. ICES Journal of Marine Science 58:1030-1041. Hill, R.D. 1986. Microcomputer monitor and blood sampler for free-diving Weddell seals. Journal of Applied Physiology 61:1570-1576. Holling, C.S., Ed. 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. Wiley, Chichester, United Kingdom. Houser, D.S., R. Howard and S. Ridgway. 2001. Can diving-induced tissue nitrogen supersaturation increase the chance of acoustically driven bubble growth in marine mammals? Journal of Theoretical Biology 213:183-195. Hunt, K.E., A.W. Trites and S.K. Wasser. 2004. Validation of a fecal glucocorticoid assay for Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Physiology and Behavior 80:595-601. Hunter, C.M., H. Moller and D. Fletcher. 2000. Parameter uncertainty and elasticity analyses of a population model: setting research priorities for shearwaters. Ecological Modelling 134:299-323. Ising, H. and B. Kruppa. 2004. Health effects caused by noise: Evidence in the literature from the past 25 years. Noise & Health 6:5-13.

OCR for page 87
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects Jepson, P.D., M. Arbelo, R. Deaville, I.A.P. Patterson, P. Castro, J.R. Baker, E. Degollada, H.M. Ross, P. Herráez, A.M. Pocknell, F. Rodríguez, F.E. Howie, A. Espinosa, R.J. Reid, J.R. Jaber, V. Martin, A.A. Cunningham and A. Fernández. 2003. Was sonar responsible for a spate of whale deaths after an Atlantic military exercise? Nature 425:575-576. Johnson, M. and P.L. Tyack. 2003. A digital acoustic recording tag for measuring the response of wild marine mammals to sound. IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 28:3-12. Johnson, S.R. 2002. Marine mammal mitigation and monitoring program for the 2001 Odoptu 3-D seismic survey, Sakhalin Island, Russia. Paper SC/02/WGW19 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, April 2002. 49 pp. This document is available from the Office of the International Whaling Commission, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Kastak, D. and R.J. Schusterman. 1996. Sensitization and habituation to underwater sound by captive pinnipeds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 99(4):2577. Kastak, D., R.J. Schusterman, B.L. Southall and C.J. Reichmuth. 1999. Underwater temporary threshold shift induced by octave-band noise in three species of pinniped. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 106:1142-1148. Kastelein, R.A., D. de Haan, A.D. Goodson, C. Staal and N. Vaughan. 1997. The effects of various sounds on a harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). Pp. 367-383 in The Biology of the Harbour Porpoise, A.J. Read, P.R. Wiepkema and P.E. Nachtigall, Eds. De Spil Publishers, Woerden, Netherlands. Kasuya, T., R.L. Brownell, Jr. and K.C. Balcomb, III. 1997. Life history of Baird’s beaked whales off the Pacific coast of Japan. Report of the International Whaling Commission 47:969-979. Ketten, D.R. 1994. Functional analyses of whale ears: Adaptations for underwater hearing. IEEE Proceedings in Underwater Acoustics 1:264-270. Kokko, H., J. Lindström and E. Ranta. 1997. Risk analysis of hunting of seal populations in the Baltic. Conservation Biology 11:917-927. Krahn, M.M., P.R. Wade, S.T. Kalinowski, M.E. Dahlheim, B.L. Taylor, M.B. Hanson, G.M. Ylitalo, R.P. Angliss, J.E. Stein and R.S. Waples. 2002. Status review of Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) under the Endangered Species Act. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NWFSC-54, 133 pp. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland. Kuenzel, W.J., M.M. Beck and R. Teruyama. 1999. Neural sites and pathways regulating food intake in birds: a comparative analysis to mammalian systems. Journal of Experimental Zoology 283:348-364. Laist, D.W. 1996. Impacts of marine debris: Entanglement of marine life in marine debris including a comprehensive list of species with entanglement and ingestions records. Pp. 99-139 in Marine Debris: Sources, Impacts, and Solutions. J.M. Coe and D.R. Rogers, Eds. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York. Laist, D.W., A.R. Knowlton, J.G. Mead, A.S. Collet and M. Podesta. 2001. Collisions between ships and whales. Marine Mammal Science 17:35-75. Lalas, C. and C.J.A. Bradshaw. 2003. Expectations for population growth at new breeding locations for the vulnerable New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) using a simulation model. Biological Conservation 114:67-78.

OCR for page 87
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects Larson, S., C.J. Casson and S. Wasser. 2003. Noninvasive reproductive steroid hormone estimates from fecal samples of captive female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). General and Comparative Endocrinology 134:18-25. Lavigne, D.M., W. Barchard, S. Innis and N.A. Øritsland. 1982. Pinniped bioenergetics. Pp. 191-235 in Mammals of the Seas, Volume V. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy. Le Boeuf, B.J., D.E. Crocker, D.P. Costa, S.B. Blackwell, P.M. Webb and D.S. Houser. 2000. Foraging ecology of northern elephant seals. Ecological Monographs 70:353-382. LGL and Greeneridge. 1986. Reactions of beluga whales and narwhals to ship traffic and ice-breaking along ice edges in the eastern Canadian High Arctic 1982-1984. Environmental Studies 37. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Ottawa, Canada, 301 pp. Lockyer, C. 1981. Growth and energy projects of large baleen whales from the southern hemisphere. Pp. 379-488 in Mammals of the Seas, Volume III. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy. Ludwig, D. 1996. Uncertainty and the assessment of extinction probabilities. Ecological Applications 6:1067-1076. Malme, C.I., P.R. Miles, C.W. Clark, P. Tyack and J.E. Bird. 1983. Investigations on the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum industry activities on migrating gray whale behavior. Report No. 5366 submitted to the Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, NTIS PB86-174174, Government Printing Press, Washington, DC. Malme, C.I., P.R. Miles, C.W. Clark, P. Tyack and J.E. Bird. 1984. Investigations on the potential effects of underwater noise from petroleum industry activities on migrating gray whale behavior. Phase II: January 1984 migration. Report No. 5586 submitted to the Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, NTIS PB86-218377. Government Printing Press, Washington, DC. Mann, J., R. Connor, P.L. Tyack and H. Whitehead, Eds. 2000. Cetacean Societies: field studies of whales and dolphins. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. Marine Mammal Commission. 2004. Beaked Whale Technical Workshop, Baltimore, Maryland, 13-16 April, 2004. Marine Mammal Commission, Bethesda, Maryland. [Online] Available at: http://www.mmc.gov/sound/beakedwhalewrkshp/beakedwhalewrkshp.html [October 28, 2004]. McEwen, B.S. 2000. Allostasis and allostatic load: Implications for neuropsychopharmacology. Neuropsychopharmacology 22:108-124. McEwen B.S. and E. Stellar. 1993. Stress and the individual: Mechanisms leading to disease. Archives of Internal Medicine 153:2093-2101. McEwen, B.S. and J.C. Wingfield. 2003. The concept of allostasis in biology and biomedicine. Hormones and Behavior 43:2-15. Mertz, D.B. 1971. The mathematical demography of the California condor population. American Naturalist 105:437-453. Meyer, M. and J. Booker. 1991. Eliciting and Analyzing Expert Judgment, a Practical Guide. Academic Press, London, United Kingdom. Miller, P.J.O., N. Biasson, A. Samuels and P.L. Tyack. 2000. Whale songs lengthen in response to sonar. Nature 405:903.

OCR for page 87
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects Morgan, M.G. and M. Henrion. 1990. Uncertainty. A Guide to Dealing with Uncertainty in Qualitative Risk and Policy Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Morton, A.B. and H.K. Symonds. 2002. Displacement of Orcinus orca (L.) by high amplitude sound in British Columbia, Canada. ICES Journal of Marine Science 59:71-80. Moulton, V.D., W.J. Richardson, M.T. Williams and S.B. Blackwell. 2003. Ringed seal densities and noise near an icebound artificial island with construction and drilling. Acoustics Research Letters Online-ARLO 4:112-117. [Online] Available at: http://scitation.aip.org/getabs/servlet/GetabsServlet?prog=normal&id=ARLOFJ000004000004000112000001&idtype=cvips&gifs=yes [September 22,2004]. Munk, W.H., R.C. Spindel, A. Baggeroer and T.G. Birdsall. 1994. The Heard Island Feasibility Test. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 96(4):2330-2342. Muruthi, P., J. Altmann and S. Altmann. 1991. Resource base, parity, and reproductive condition affect females, feeding time and nutrient intake within and between groups of a baboon population. Oecologica 87:467-472. Nachtigall, P.E., J.L. Pawloski and W.W.L. Au. 2003. Temporary threshold shifts and recovery following noise exposure in the Atlantic bottlenosed dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 113:3425-3429 Nachtigall, P.E., A.Ya. Supin, J.L. Pawloski and W.W.L. Au. 2004. Temporary threshold shifts after noise exposure in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) measured using evoked auditory potentials. Marine Mammal Science 20:673-687. National Marine Fisheries Service. 2002. Cuvier’s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris): Western North Atlantic Stock Pp. 46-51 in U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2002. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-169. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 2002. Report of the Workshop on Acoustic Resonance as a Source of Tissue Trauma in Cetaceans, Silver Spring, Maryland, 24-25 April, 2002. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, Maryland. [Online] Available at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/prot_res/readingrm/MMSURTASS/Res_Wkshp_Rpt_Fin.PDF. 19pp. National Research Council (NRC). 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Managing the Process. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. National Research Council (NRC). 1993. Issues in Risk Assessment. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. National Research Council (NRC). 1994. Low-Frequency Sound and Marine Mammals: Current Knowledge and Research Needs. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. National Research Council (NRC). 1995. Science and the Endangered Species Act. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. National Research Council (NRC). 2000. Marine Mammals and Low-Frequency Sound. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. National Research Council (NRC). 2003a. The Decline of the Steller Sea Lion in Alaskan Waters: Untangling Food Webs and Fishing Nets. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

OCR for page 87
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects National Research Council (NRC). 2003b. Ocean Noise and Marine Mammals. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC. Nichols, J.D., G.L. Hensler and P.W. Sykes, Jr. 1980. Demography of the Everglade kite: implications for population management. Ecological Modeling 9:215-232. Nichols, J.D., J.R. Sauer, K.H. Pollock and J.B. Hestbeck. 1992. Estimating transition probabilities for stage-based population projection matrices using capture-recapture data. Ecology 73:306-312. Norris, J.C., W.E. Evans and S. Rankin. 2000. An acoustic survey of cetaceans in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Pp. 173-216 in Cetaceans, sea turtles and seabirds in the northern Gulf of Mexico: distribution, abundance and habitat associations, R.W. Davis, W.E. Evans and B. Würsig, Eds. Final report, Technical report. USGS/BRD/CR-1999-0005/OCS Study MMS 2000-003. U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Washington, DC, 346 pp. Nowacek, D.P., M.P. Johnson and P.L. Tyack. 2003. North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) ignore ships but respond to alerting stimuli. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 271:227-231. Piantadosi, C.A. and E.D. Thalmann. 2004. Pathology: Whales, sonar and decompression sickness (reply). Nature 428(6984):U1. Pitcher, K.W. 1990. Major decline in number of harbor seals, Phoca vitulina richardsi, on Tugidak Island, Gulf of Alaska. Marine Mammal Science 6:121-134. Porter, W.P., J.W. Jaeger and I.H. Carlson. 1999. Endocrine, immune, and behavioral effects of aldicarb (cabamate), atrazine (triazine) and nitrate (fertilizer) mixtures at groundwater concentrations. Toxicology and Industrial Health 15:133-150. Ralls, K. and B.L. Taylor. 2000. Better policy and management decisions through explicit analysis of uncertainty: new approaches from marine conservation biology. Conservation Biology 14:1240-1242. Rankin, S. 1999. The potential effects of sounds from seismic exploration on the distribution of cetaceans in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Report by the Department of Oceanography. Texas A&M University, College Station, 65 pp. Richardson, W.J. and C.I. Malme. 1993. Man-made noise and behavioral responses. Pp. 631-700 in The Bowhead Whale, J.J. Burns, et al., Eds. Special Publication No. 2, Society for Marine Mammalogy, Lawrence, Kansas. Ridgway, S. and R. Howard. 1979. Dolphin lung collapse and intramuscular circulation during free diving: evidence from nitrogen washout. Science 166:1182-1183. Rolland, R.M., K.E. Hunt, S.D. Kraus and S.K. Wasser. 2004. Non-invasive measurement of reproductive hormones in North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis). Canadian Journal of Zoology (In review). Romero, L.M. 2004. Physiological stress in ecology: lessons from biological research. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:217-255. Romero, L.M. and M. Wikelski. 2001. Corticosterone levels predict survival probabilities of Galapagos marine iguanas during El Niño events. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98(13):7366-7370. Romero, L.M. and M. Wikelski. 2002. Severe effects of low-level oil contamination on wildlife predicted by the corticosterone-stress response: preliminary data and a research agenda. Spill Science and Technology Bulletin 7:309-313.

OCR for page 87
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects Sands, J. and S. Creel. 2004. Social dominance, aggression, and faecal glucocorticoid levels in a wild population of wolves, Canis lupus. Animal Behaviour 67:387-396. Sapolsky, R.M. 1994. Individual differences and the stress response. Seminars in the Neurosciences 6:261-269. Sapolsky, R.M., S.C. Alberts and J. Altmann. 1997. Hypercortisolism associated with social subordinance or social isolation among wild baboons. Archives of General Psychiatry 54:1137-1143. Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). 2004. SCAR report on marine acoustic technology and the Antarctic environment. Information Paper IP 078. [Online] Available at: http://www.cep.aq/MediaLibrary/asset/MediaItems/ml_381324289814815_27IP078E.doc [October 28, 2004]. Schleidt, W. 1961a. Reaktionen von Truthühnern auf fliegende Raubvögeln und Versuche zur Analyse ihrer AAM’s. Z. Tierpsychol 18:534-560. Schleidt, W. 1961b. Über die Auslösung der Flucht vor Raubvögeln bei Truthühnern. Naturwissenschaften 48:141-142. Schlundt, C.E., J.J. Finneran, D.A. Carder and S.H. Ridgway. 2000. Temporary shift in masked hearing thresholds of bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, and white whales, Delphinapterus leucas, after exposure to intense tones. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 107:3496-3508. Seeman, T.E., B.S. McEwen, J.W. Rowe and B.H. Singer. 2001. Allostatic load as a marker of cumulative biological risk: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98(8):4770-4775. Silk, J.B., S.C. Alberts and J. Altmann. 2003. Social bonds of female baboons enhance infant survival. Science 302:1231-1234. Slooten, E., D. Fletcher and B. Taylor. 2000. Accounting for uncertainty in risk assessment: Case study of Hector’s dolphin mortality due to gillnet entanglement. Conservation Biology 14:1264-1270. Starfield, A.M. and A.L. Bleloch. 1991. Building Models for Conservation and Wildlife Management (second edition). Interactive Book Company, Edina, Minnesota. Stevens, D.W. and J.R. Krebs. 1987. Foraging Theory. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. Stone, C.J. 2001. Marine mammal observations during seismic surveys in 1999. JNCC Report. No. 316 JNCC, Peterborough, United Kingdom. Stone, C.J. 2003. The effects of seismic activity on marine mammals in UK waters, 1998-2000. JNCC Report No. 323. Report prepared for the Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough, United Kingdom. Swartz, R.L. and R.J. Hofman. 1991. Marine Mammal and Habitat Monitoring: Requirements, Principles, Needs, and Approaches. Report prepared for Marine Mammal Commission. NTIS PB91-215046. National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia. Taylor, B.L., P.R. Wade, R.A. Stehn and J.F. Cochrane. 1996. A Bayesian approach to classification criteria for Spectacled Eiders. Ecological Applications 6:1077-1089. Taylor, B.L., P.R. Wade, D.P. DeMaster and J. Barlow. 2000. Incorporating uncertainty into management models for marine mammals. Conservation Biology 14:1243-1252. Taylor, B.L., J. Barlow, R. Pitman, L. Balance, T. Klinger, D. DeMaster, J. Hildebrand, J. Urban, D. Palacios and J.G. Mead. 2004. A call for research to assess risk of acoustic

OCR for page 87
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects impact on beaked whale populations. Paper SC/56/E36 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, July 2004. 4 pp. This document is available from the office of the International Whaling Commission, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Trillmich, F. and T. Dellinger. 1991. The effects of El Niño on Galapagos pinnipeds. Pp. 66-74 in: Pinnipeds and el Nino: Responses to Environmental Stress, F. Trillmich and K. Ono, Eds. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. Trillmich, F. and K.A. Ono, Eds. 1991. Pinnipeds and El Niño: Responses to Environmental Stress. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany. Tukey, J.W. 1977. Exploratory Data Analysis. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts. Tyack, P. 1998. Acoustic communication under the sea. Pp. 163-220 in Animal Acoustic Communication: Recent Technical Advances, S.L. Hoop, M.J. Owren, and C.S. Evans, Eds. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. Tyack, P.L. and C.W. Clark. 1998. Quick-look report: Playback of low-frequency sound to gray whales migrating past the central California coast. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts. Tyack, P.L. and C.W. Clark. 2000. Communication and acoustical behavior in dolphins and whales. Pp. 156-224 in Hearing by Whales and Dolphins. Springer Handbook of Auditory Research, W.W.L. Au, A.N. Popper and R.R. Fay, Eds. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York. Tyack, P., J. Gordon and D. Thompson. 2004. Controlled Exposure Experiments to Determine the Effects of Noise on Large Marine Mammals. Marine Technology Society Journal 37(4):41-53. U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. 2004. An Ocean Blueprint for the 21st Century: Final Report of the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy, Washington, D.C. [Online] Available at: http://www.oceancommission.gov/documents/welcome.html [November 10, 2004]. Wade, P.R. 2000. Bayesian methods in conservation biology. Conservation Biology 14:1308-1316. Ward, W.D. 1963. Auditory fatigue and masking. Pp. 240-286 in Modern Developments in Audiology, J. Jerger, Ed. Academic Press, New York, New York. Waring, G.T., R.M. Pace, J.M. Quintal, C.P. Fairfield and K. Maze-Foley, Eds. 2003. North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis): Western Stock. Pp. 6-13 in U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Marine Mammal Stock Assessments - 2003. U.S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-182. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland. Wartzok, D., A.N. Popper, J. Gordon, and J. Merrill. 2004. Factors affecting the responses of marine mammals to acoustic disturbance. Marine Technology Society Journal 37(4):6-15. Wasser, S.K., K.C. Hunt, J.L. Brown, K. Cooper, C.M. Crockett, U. Bechert, J.J. Millspaugh, S. Larson, and S.L. Monfort. 2000. A generalized fecal glucocorticoid assay for use in a diverse array of nondomestic mammalian and avian species. General and Comparative Endocrinology 120:260-265. Weiss, J.M. 1968. Effects of coping responses on stress. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 65:251-260.

OCR for page 87
Marine Mammal Populations and Ocean Noise: Determining When Noise Causes Biologically Significant Effects Weller, D.W., Y.V. Ivaschenko, G.A. Tsidulko, A.M. Burdin and R.L. Brownell, Jr. 2002. Influence of seismic surveys on Western gray whales off Sakhalin Island, Russia in 2001. Paper SC/54/BRG14 presented to the IWC Scientific Committee, April 2002. 15 pp. This document is available from the Office of the International Whaling Commission, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Wells, R.S. 1993. Parental investment patterns of wild bottlenose dolphins. Pp. 58-64 in Proceedings of the Eighteenth International Marine Animal Trainers’ Association Conference, N.F. Hecker, Ed. International Marine Animal Trainers’ Association, Chicago, Illinois. Wells, R.S. 2003. Dolphin social complexity: Lessons from long-term study and life history. Pp. 32-56 in: Animal Social Complexity: Intelligence, Culture, and Individualized Societies. F.B.M. de Waal and P.L. Tyack, Eds. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Whitman, K., A.M. Starfield, H.S. Quadling and C. Packer. 2004. Sustainable trophy hunting of African lions. Nature 428:175-178. Willott, J.F., T. Hnath Chisolm and J.J. Lister. 2001. Modulation of Presbycusis: Current Status and Future Directions. Audiology & Neuro-Otology 6(5):231-249. Wingfield, J.C., C. Breuner, J.D. Jacobs, S. Lynn, D. Maney, M. Ramenofsky and R. Richardson. 1998. Ecological bases of hormone-behavior interactions: the emergency life history stage. American Zooligist 38:191-206. Wingfield, J.C. and M. Ramenofsky. 1999. Hormones and the behavioral ecology of stress. Pp. 1-51 in Stress Physiology in Animals, P.H.M. Balm, Ed. Sheffield Academic Press, Sheffield. Wingfield, J.C. and L.M. Romero. 2001. Adrenocortical responses to stress and their modulation in free-living vertebrates. Pp. 211-234 in Handbook of Physiology; Section 7: The Endocrine System; Volume IV: Coping with the Environment: Neural and Endocrine Mechanisms, B.S. McEwen, H.M. Goodman, Eds. Oxford University Press, New York, New York. York, A.E. 1987. Northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus, eastern Pacific population (Pribilof Islands, Alaska, and San Miguel Island, California). Pp. 9-21 in Status, Biology, and Ecology of Fur Seals; Proceedings of an International Symposium and Workshop, Cambridge, England, 23-27 April 1984, J.P. Croxall and R.L. Gentry, Eds. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Marine Fisheries Service Techical Report number 51. NOAA, Silver Spring, Maryland. York, A.E. 1994. The population dynamics of Northern sea lions, 1975-1985. Marine Mammal Science 10:38-51.