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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

Support for this project was provided by the Department of Energy under Sponsor Award No. DE-AT01-03NA00106. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number 0-309-09502-6 (Book)

International Standard Book Number 0-309-54679-6 (PDF)

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 2004118086

Cover designed by Jennifer Bishop.

Cover images (clockwise from top right, front to back)

1. Exploding star. Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Center for Supernova Research, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.

2. Hurricane Frances, September 5, 2004, taken by GOES-12 satellite, 1 km visible imagery. U.S. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration.

3. Large-eddy simulation of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability run on the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory MCR Linux cluster in July 2003. The relative abundance of the heavier elements in our universe is largely determined by fluid instabilities and turbulent mixing inside violently exploding stars.

4. Three-dimensional model of the structure of a ras protein. Human Genome Program, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science.

5. Test launch of Minuteman intercontinental ballistic missile. Vandenberg Air Force Base.

6. A sample of liquid deuterium subjected to a supersonic impact, showing the formation of a shock front on the atomic scale. The simulation involved 1,320 atoms and ran for several days on 2,640 processors of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s ASCI White. It provided an extremely detailed picture of the formation and propagation of a shock front on the atomic scale. Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI), Department of Energy, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

7. Isodensity surfaces of a National Ignition Facility ignition capsule bounding the shell, shown at 200 picosec (left), 100 picosec (center), and near ignition time (right). An example of ASCI White three-dimensional computer simulations based on predictive physical models. ASCI, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

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Copyright 2005 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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