Taubenberger JK, Reid AH, Krafft AE, Bijwaard KE, Fanning TG. 1997. Initial genetic characterization of the 1918 “Spanish” influenza virus. Science 275:1793–1796.

Taubenberger J, Reid A, Fanning T. 2000. The 1918 influenza virus: A killer comes into view. Virology 274:241–245.

Taubenberger JK, Reid AH, Janczewski TA, Fanning TG. 2001. Integrating historical, clinical and molecular genetic data in order to explain the origin and virulence of the 1918 Spanish influenza virus. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356:1829–1839.

The Mobilization of the American National Red Cross During the Influenza Pandemic 1918–1919. 1920. Geneva, Switzerland. P. 24.

Thomson D, Thomson R. 1934a. Annals of the Pickett-Thomson Research Laboratory. Volume IX, Influenza. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkens.

Thomson D, Thomson R. 1934b. Annals of the Pickett-Thomson Research Laboratory. Volume X, Influenza. Baltimore, MD: Williams and Wilkens.

Thompson WW, Shay DK, Weintraub E, Brammer L, Cox N, Anderson LJ, Fukuda K. 2003. Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. JAMA 289:179–186.

To KF, Chan PK, Chan KF, Lee WK, Lam WY, Wong KF, Tang NL, Tsang DN, Sung RY, Buckley TA, Tam JS, Cheng AF. 2001. Pathology of fatal human infection associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. J Med Virol 63(3):242–246.

Tran TH, Nguyen TL, Nguyen TD, Luong TS, Pham PM, Nguyen VC, Pham TS, Vo CD, Le TQ, Ngo TT, Dao BK, Le PP, Nguyen TT, Hoang TL, Cao VT, Le TG, Nguyen DT, Le HN, Nguyen KT, Le HS, Le VT, Christiane D, Tran TT, Menno de J, Schultsz C, Cheng P, Lim W, Horby P, Farrar J; World Health Organization International Avian Influenza Investigative Team. 2004. Avian influenza A (H5N1) in 10 patients in Vietnam. N Engl J Med 350:1179–1188.

Tumpey TM, Garcia-Sastre A, Mikulasova A, Taubenberger JK, Swayne DE, Palese P, Basler CF. 2002. Existing antivirals are effective against influenza viruses with genes from the 1918 pandemic virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:13849–13854.

Tumpey TM, Garcia-Sastre A, Taubenberger JK, Palese P, Swayne DE, Basler CF. 2004. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of influenza viruses with genes from the 1918 pandemic virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(9):3166–3171.

U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1921. Mortality Statistics. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. P. 30.

U.S. Department of Commerce. 1976. Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.

Van Hartesveldt FR. 1992. The 1918–1919 Pandemic of Influenza: The Urban Impact in the Western World. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press. Pp. 121, 144.

Vaughn S. 1980. Holding Fast the Line: Democracy, Nationalism, and the Committee on Public Information. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Vaughn WT. 1921. Influenza: An epidemiological study. Am J Hyg Monograph No. 1.

Viboud C, Grais RF, Lafont BAP, Miller MA, Simonsen L. 2004. Multi-national impact of the 1968 Hong-Kong influenza pandemic: Evidence for a smoldering pandemic. Submitted.

Wang X, Li M, Zheng H, Muster T, Palese P, Beg AA, Garcia-Sastre A. 2000. Influenza A virus NS1 protein prevents activation of NF-kappaB and induction of alpha/beta interferon. J Virol 74:11566–11573.

Webby RJ, Webster RG. 2003. Are we ready for pandemic influenza? Science 302:1519–1522.

Webster R, Rott R. 1987. Influenza virus A pathogenicity: The pivotal role of hemagglutinin. Cell 50:665–666.

Webster RG, Bean WJ, Gorman OT, Chambers TM, Kawaoka Y. 1992. Evolution and ecology of influenza A viruses. Microbiol Rev 56:152–179.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement