Hoffmann E, Stech J, Leneva I, Krauss S, Scholtissek C, Chin PS, Peiris M, Shortridge KF, Webster RG. 2000. Characterization of the influenza A virus gene pool in avian species in southern China: Was H6N1 a derivative or a precursor of H5N1? J Virol 74:6309–6315.

Holsinger LJ, Shaughnessy MA, Micko A, Pinto LH, Lamb RA. 1995. Analysis of the post-translational modifications of the influenza virus M2 protein. J Virol 69:1219–1225.


Iwatsuki-Horimoto K, Kanazawa R, Sugii S, Kawaoka Y, Horimoto T. 2004. The index influenza A virus subtype H5N1 isolated from a human in 1997 differs in its receptor-binding properties from a virulent avian influenza virus. J Gen Virol 85:1001–1005.


Katz JM. 2003. The impact of avian influenza viruses on public health. Avian Disease 47: 914–920.

Kaverin NV, Rudneva IA, Ilyushina NA, Varich NL, Lipatov AS, Smirnov YA, Govorkova EA, Gitelman AK, Lvov DK, Webster RG. 2002. Structure of antigenic sites on the haemagglutinin molecule of H5 avian influenza virus and phenotypic variation of escape mutants. J Gen Virol 83:2497–2505.

Kumar S, Tamura K, Jakobsen IB, Nei M. 2001. MEGA2: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software. Bioinformatics 17:1244–1245.


Li KS, Xu KM, Peiris JS, Poon LL, Yu KZ, Yuen KY, Shortridge KF, Webster RG, Guan Y. 2003. Characterization of H9 subtype influenza viruses from the ducks of southern China: A candidate for the next influenza pandemic in humans? J Virol 77:6988–6994.


Matrosovich M, Zhou NN, Kawaoka Y, Webster RG. 1999. The surface glycoproteins of H5 influenza viruses isolated from humans, chickens, and wild aquatic birds have distinguishable properties. J Virol 73:1146–1155.

Matrosovich MN, Matrosovich TY, Gray T, Roberts NA, Klenk HD. 2004. Human and avian influenza viruses target different cell types in cultures of human airway epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:4620–4624.

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam. 2004 (May). Final Report of Avian Influenza Outbreak in Vietnam. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of Vietnam.


Peiris JS, Guan Y, Markwell D, Ghose P, Webster RG, Shortridge KF. 2001. Co-circulation of avian H9N2 and contemporary “human” H3N2 influenza viruses in pigs in southeastern China: Potential for genetic reassortment? J Virol 75:9679–9686.

Presgraves DC, Balagopalan L, Abmayr SM, Orr HA. 2003. Adaptive evolution drives divergence of a hybrid inviability gene between two species of Drosophila. Nature 423:715–719.

ProMED-mail. 2004a (August 13). PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza, human—East Asia (38). Published date: August 13, 2004. Archive number: 20040813.2249. Available at http://www.promedmail.org. Source: WHO Outbreak News, 13 Aug 2004 [edited]: http://www.who.int/csr/don/2004_08_13/en/print.html. “Human cases of avian influenza: situation in Viet Nam.”

ProMED-mail. 2004b (September 29). PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza, human—East Asia (49): Viet Nam. Published date: September 29, 2004. Archive number: 20040929.2692. Available at http://www.promedmail.org.

ProMED-mail. 2004c. PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza—Eastern Asia (98): Viet Nam, Thailand. Published date: July 27, 2004. Archive number: 20040727.2058. Available at http://www.promedmail.org.

ProMED-mail. 2004d (October 25). PRO/AH/EDR> Avian influenza, human—Thailand (08). Published date: October 25, 2004. Archive number: 20041025.2886. Available at http://www.promedmail.org.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement