In general, academe might find industrial practices that facilitate cognitive and social aspects of IDR and large-scale management of IDR helpful. One must recognize that the performance of IDR in academe occurs in its own particular institutional setting with its own conditions of rewards, budgeting, and especially responsibility for training the next generation of researchers.


Although research management in industrial and government settings tends to be more “top-down” than it is in academe, universities may benefit by incorporating many IDR strategies used by industrial and national laboratories, which have long experience in supporting IDR.

Collaborative interdisciplinary research partnerships among universities, industry, and government have increased and diversified rapidly. Although such partnerships still face substantial barriers, well-documented studies provide strong evidence of both their research benefits and their effectiveness in bringing diverse cultures together.

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