Geologic Mapping

Future Needs

Committee on Geologic Mapping

Board on Earth Sciences

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1988



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Geologic Mapping: Future Needs Geologic Mapping Future Needs Committee on Geologic Mapping Board on Earth Sciences Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988

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Geologic Mapping: Future Needs NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O.Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and of advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M.White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided through the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. Available from Board on Earth Sciences 2101 Constitution Avenue Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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Geologic Mapping: Future Needs COMMITTEE ON GEOLOGIC MAPPING Charles J.Mankin, Oklahoma Geological Survey, Chairman W.Gary Ernst, University of California, Los Angeles Douglas M.Morton, U.S. Geological Survey A.G.Unklesbay, Columbia, Missouri H.Jesse Walker, Louisiana State University Kenneth N.Weaver, Maryland Geological Survey NRC Staff Joseph W.Berg, Jr. Betty C.Guyot Thomas M.Usselman

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Geologic Mapping: Future Needs BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES Brian J.Skinner, Yale University, Chairman Donald J.DePaolo, University of California, Los Angeles Larry W.Finger, Carnegie Institution of Washington Robert N.Ginsburg, University of Miami Alexander F.H.Goetz, University of Colorado Michel T.Halbouty, M.T.Halbouty Energy Company Allen Hatheway, University of Missouri Andrew H.Knoll, Botanical Museum of Harvard University Amos Salvador, University of Texas at Austin Joseph V.Smith, University of Chicago Sean C.Solomon, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Steven Stanley, Johns Hopkins University George A.Thompson, Stanford University Waldo R.Tobler, University of California, Santa Barbara Donald L.Turcotte, Cornell University Ex-Officio Members Paul B.Barton, Jr., U.S. Geological Survey Karl K.Turekian, Yale University Liaison Members Miriam Baltuck, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Jerry Brown, National Science Foundation Philip Cohen, U.S. Geological Survey Bruce R.Doe, U.S. Geological Survey Bruce B.Hanshaw, 28th International Geological Congress James F.Hays, National Science Foundation John G.Heacock, Office of Naval Research Donald F.Heinrichs, National Science Foundation Marvin E.Kauffman, American Geological Institute Ben Kelly, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers George A.Kolstad, Department of Energy Ian D.MacGregor, National Science Foundation Benjamin Morgan, U.S. Geological Survey Andrew Murphy, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Dallas L.Peck, U.S. Geological Survey Shelby G.Tilford, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Raymond G.Watts, U.S. Geological Survey Kenneth N.Weaver, Maryland Geological Survey Arthur J.Zeizel, Federal Emergency Management Agency Robert S.Long, Acting Staff Director Betty C.Guyot, Staff Assistant Shirley E.Cole, Administrative Secretary

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Geologic Mapping: Future Needs COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND RESOURCES Norman Hackerman, Robert A.Welch Foundation, Chairman George F.Carrier, Harvard University Dean E.Eastman, IBM, T.J.Watson Research Center Mayre Anne Fox, University of Texas Gerhart Friedlander, Brookhaven National Laboratory Lawrence W.Funkhouser, Chevron Corporation (retired) Phillip A.Griffiths, Duke University J.Ross Macdonald, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Charles J.Mankin, University of Oklahoma Perry L.McCarty, Stanford University Jack E.Oliver, Cornell University Jeremiah P.Ostriker, Princeton University Observatory William D.Phillips, Mallinckrodt, Inc. Denis J.Prager, MacArthur Foundation David M.Raup, University of Chicago Richard J.Reed, University of Washington Robert E.Sievers, University of Colorado Larry L.Smarr, University of Illinois Edward C.Stone, Jr., California Institute of Technology Karl K.Turekian, Yale University George W.Wetherill, Carnegie Institution of Washington Irving Wladawsky-Berger, IBM Corporation Raphael G.Kasper, Executive Director Lawrence E.McCray, Associate Executive Director

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Geologic Mapping: Future Needs PREFACE Geologic maps are often the principal means of presenting geologic data. Thus, the Board on Earth Sciences, and its predecessor, the Geological Sciences Board, has been concerned with the status of geologic mapping in the United States. It created the Committee on Geologic Mapping in an effort to gain quantitative information on the status of mapping activities. The committee was primarily charged with determining the current and future usage of geologic maps. This information is essential in evaluating problems facing map producers. The committee conducted a questionnaire survey designed to obtain information on the current usage of geologic maps, to locate by region current unmet needs for geologic mapping, and to identify future needs for such maps. The questionnaire identified the relative needs for specific map types and the needs by map scale, style of presentation, and type of user (e.g., exploration, basic research, engineering, and hazard assessment). Although the survey was conducted several years ago, the committee believes the results are still representative of the mapping needs, particularly as there are commonly long lead times in planning through final publication of geologic maps. This report presents the results of the questionnaire survey. The assistance of the Oklahoma Geological Survey in the design of a statistically meaningful sampling procedure and the maintenance of the resulting data base is greatly appreciated.

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Geologic Mapping: Future Needs CONTENTS     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   4      Survey Sampling,   4      Questionnaire Format,   5 2   RESPONDENT INFORMATION   9      Organizational Group,   9      Type of Work,   9      Resource Type,   10      Frequency of Map Usage,   11      Sources of Geoscience Maps,   12 3   MAP REQUIREMENTS   14 4   GEOSCIENCE MAP NEEDS   19      Conterminous United States,   20      Future Needs by Organizational Groups,   24      Future Needs by Work Activity,   25      Future Needs by Professional Affiliation,   25      Comparison of the Present and the Future,   26      Onshore Alaska,   27      Offshore Areas,   28      Map Scales for Future Map Needs,   29 5   THE NEXT DECADE   31      Single Most Important Type of Geoscience Map in the Next Decade,   31      Map Innovations,   32 6   CONCLUSIONS   34     APPENDIXES   37     A  National Research Council Geoscience Mapping Questionnaire   39     B  Sampling and General Results (Tables 1–13)   45     C  Present and Future Needs for Geoscience Maps by Region (Table 14)   53

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Geologic Mapping: Future Needs     D  Present and Future “Extremely Important” Mapping Needs by Employer Type by Province and Scale (Tables 15–21)   55     E  Present and Future “Extremely Important” Mapping Needs by Work Type by Province and Scale (Tables 22–28)   63     F  Present and Future “Extremely Important” Mapping Needs by Societal Affiliation by Province and Scale (Tables 29–38)   71     G  Summary of Responses to Question 14 (Table 39)   83