Appendix C
Workshop Presenters and Topics

William Bannister, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Origins of the 5115 Report”

Abstract: Bannister provided the history behind and motivation for the research that the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) had carried out on international trade traffic carried by highways that the panel reviewed. This history involved Section 5115 of the Transportation Equity Act of the 21st Century, and previous work in the late 1990s by Senators Moynihan and Chafee, and interactions between BTS, Department of Transportation, Department of Energy, the U.S. Census Bureau, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.


Paul Ciannavei, Reebie Associates, “The Reebie Data Base: Measuring International Trade Traffic”

Abstract: Ciannavei provided an overview of the TRANSEARCH Freight Flow Database products, including estimates of domestic U.S. freight flows, U.S.-Canada cross-border data, and U.S.-Mexico cross-border data. Ciannavei described the sources for these data products and the methodologies used to produce them (including various kinds of adjustments). In addition, Ciannavei discussed highway network routings and inland movement patterns, and he provided a definition of international trade. Finally, he discussed empty truck movements and the distinction between nonfreight and freight.



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Measuring International Trade on U.S. Highways Appendix C Workshop Presenters and Topics William Bannister, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Origins of the 5115 Report” Abstract: Bannister provided the history behind and motivation for the research that the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) had carried out on international trade traffic carried by highways that the panel reviewed. This history involved Section 5115 of the Transportation Equity Act of the 21st Century, and previous work in the late 1990s by Senators Moynihan and Chafee, and interactions between BTS, Department of Transportation, Department of Energy, the U.S. Census Bureau, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Paul Ciannavei, Reebie Associates, “The Reebie Data Base: Measuring International Trade Traffic” Abstract: Ciannavei provided an overview of the TRANSEARCH Freight Flow Database products, including estimates of domestic U.S. freight flows, U.S.-Canada cross-border data, and U.S.-Mexico cross-border data. Ciannavei described the sources for these data products and the methodologies used to produce them (including various kinds of adjustments). In addition, Ciannavei discussed highway network routings and inland movement patterns, and he provided a definition of international trade. Finally, he discussed empty truck movements and the distinction between nonfreight and freight.

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Measuring International Trade on U.S. Highways Bill Davie, Jr., Bureau of the Census, “Error Profile of CFS” Abstract: Davie provided a presentation on the major features of the Commodity Flow Survey, which is administered by the Census Bureau. This included the survey history, its objectives, industry coverage, sample design (three stages: establishments, weeks, and shipments), data items collected, editing and imputation methodologies, weighting, variance estimation, sample weights, response rates, and changes over time. Antonio E. Esteve, Consultant, “FHWA Use of Data for Allocation Purposes” Abstract: Federal-aid highway funds have been distributed to the states based on apportionment factors contained in highway legislation for some time. Esteve discussed the data systems used by the Federal Highway Administration to develop annual mileage and traffic apportionment factors as required by federal legislation in TEA-21, enacted in 1998. The programs described included the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS), the Traffic Monitoring Guide (TMG), the American Association of Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Guidelines for Traffic Data Programs, and the Traffic Monitoring System (TMW) regulation. The factors include interstate lane-miles, interstate vehicle-miles, annual contribution to the highway account, lane-miles, vehicle-miles, diesel fuel used on highways, total lane-miles on principal arteries divided by a state’s population, share of total cost to repair or replace deficient highway bridges, weighted nonattainment and maintenance area population, equal shares to each eligible state, nonhighway recreational fuel use during the preceding year, and urbanized area population. Esteve indicated how the various data systems might be used to estimate international trade carried by highways. M.J. Fiocco, Department of Transportation, “ITDS: Future Directions” Abstract: Fiocco presented an overview of the International Trade Data System (ITDS) and Automated Commercial Environment (ACE), which is intended to provide an Internet-based, integrated government-wide trade and transportation data capability. The hope is for this to become the government’s front-end information technology system for all federal trade and border agencies and to provide a single interface with a harmonized federal data set for import, export, and in-transit information on cargoes, conveyances, and crews. The presentation included details on the vision for ITDS/ACE, details on both ACE and ITDS, how the system is being developed, primary uses and users, and the proposed operational environ-

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Measuring International Trade on U.S. Highways ment. Fiocco concluded with the current status of ITDS and ACE, and the data implications of the development of this system. Catherine Lawson, State University of New York at Albany, “Emerging Technologies for Highway Freight Monitoring” Abstract: Lawson provided the current status of the several emerging technologies and data collection systems: (1) the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), including the Archived Data User Service (ADUS); (2) work carried out by Battelle Transportation Research on use of global positioning system technology and memory cards; (3) the International Mobility and Trade Corridor (IMTC); (4) the Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Network (CVISN); (5) AirTrak; and (6) the Idaho Department of Transportation Data Collection System. Lawson also discussed the possibility of the use of video imaging for data collection and SMART trucks. Daniel Melnick, Consultant, “Alternative Data Source Quality and Availability” Abstract: Melnick provided a description of the information available from four data systems: (1) Transborder Surface Freight, (2) PIERS, (3) railway weight bills, and (4) inland waterborne data from reports filed with the Corps of Engineers. Melnick offered the important distinction between information typically collected on trade and information typically collected on transportation, with the associated limits that trade data have for inferring transportation flows. Paul Metaxatos, Universal Technical System, University of Illinois at Chicago, “Estimation and Accuracy of Origin-Destination Highway Freight Weight and Value Flows” Abstract: Metaxatos described the gravity model in detail, including how the parameters are estimated, the sensitivity of the estimates to changes in the parameter estimates, needed data sources, model output—including confidence intervals, and results based on current data. Harvey Monk, Bureau of the Census, “Access to Export-Import Data for Allocation Formula Uses” Abstract: Monk discussed what import and export information could be shared with the Bureau of Transportation Statistics under the authority of Title 13 of the United States Code. Included was information on the types of data collected, the quality, and current access under Title 13.

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Measuring International Trade on U.S. Highways Rolf Schmidt, Federal Highway Administration, “Freight Analysis Framework and Ton-Miles of International Trade Traffic” Abstract: Bruce Lambert gave a presentation on the Freight Analysis Framework (FAF), which was created to understand the magnitude and geography of freight moving on the nation’s transportation system, to develop a tool to evaluate emerging congestion, and to support reauthorization policy analysis. The FAF is a synthesis of diverse data from BTS, Army Corps, Reebie Truck, Rail Waybill Sample, etc., working across modes, to develop a better understanding of emerging logistics and various trade and transportation issues. The current products are a commodity database, a highway capacity database, and maps of freight activity for the nation, states, and selected metro areas. Irwin Silberman, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, “Conceptual Underpinnings of Ton-Miles and Value-Miles” Abstract: Silberman discussed the advantages and current uses of information on ton-miles. The strength is the combination in the statistic of two essential elements of transportation service, distance and quantity. Tonnage absent distance has the disadvantages of the possibility of double counting and the importance of the distance a load travels. Value-miles seem somewhat less useful as in discriminating since high value goods are most likely to be transported by air. Frank Southworth, Senior R&D Staff, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, “Missing Pieces in Ton-Mile Estimation and ORNL Highway Network” Abstract: This presentation added greater detail to the workings of the flow assignment model described by Hwang. The primary step involves selection of the most likely origin-destination paths through the ORNL multimodal network, using either a least impedance path model or a logit-based weighted distance average. The presentation also included the sources of uncertainty of the distance calculations. Rob Tardif, Ontario Ministry of Transportation, “Measuring Highway Freight Traffic in Canada” Abstract: This presentation discussed a variety of datasets that are used to help measure highway freight traffic in Canada. They include the Canadian Vehicle Survey and trade data.