Team, and the Mars Polar Lander Failure Review Board. He is also a member of the NSO Solar Observatory Council.

CHARLES F. BOLDEN, JR., a retired U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) major general, is a senior vice president at TechTrans International, Inc. Selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in 1980, Mr. Bolden qualified as a space shuttle pilot astronaut in 1981 and subsequently flew four missions in space. As pilot of the Space Shuttle Discovery in 1990, Mr. Bolden and crew successfully deployed the Hubble Space Telescope. On his third mission in 1992, he commanded the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the first Space Laboratory mission dedicated to NASA’s Mission to Planet Earth. Immediately following this mission, Mr. Bolden was appointed assistant deputy administrator for NASA. He held this post until assigned as commander of STS-60 in 1994, the first joint U.S./Russian space shuttle mission. Upon completion of this fourth mission, Major General Bolden left the space program and returned to operational assignment in the USMC as the deputy commandant of midshipmen at the Naval Academy. He served in a number of Marine Corps and joint service assignments before retiring from the Marine Corps as the Commanding General of the Third Marine Aircraft Wing, MCAS Miramar, San Diego, California, having served more than 34 years. Bolden served on the NRC Committee on the Navy’s Needs in Space for Providing Future Capabilities (2003-2004).

RODNEY A. BROOKS is director of the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and is the Fujitsu Professor of Computer Science. He is also chief technical officer of iRobot Corp. His research is concerned both with the engineering of intelligent robots to operate in unstructured environments, and with understanding human intelligence through building humanoid robots. Dr. Brooks is a founding fellow of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He won the Computers and Thought Award at the 1991 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence. He was co-founding editor of the International Journal of Computer Vision and is a member of the editorial boards of various journals, including Adaptive Behavior, Artificial Life, Applied Artificial Intelligence, Autonomous Robots, and New Generation Computing. He is an elected member of the National Academy of Engineering.

JON H. BRYSON is senior vice president at Aerospace Corporation with executive and supervisory responsibilities for a team supporting space systems. He has served as deputy director of the Air Force component of the National Reconnaissance Office with management responsibilities for a unit acquiring and operating several major space programs. Mr. Bryson served as program manager for two NRO programs that deal with of all aspects of the design, development, launch, and operation of several complex spacecraft and their attendant ground stations. He was a program officer for the Office of the Secretary of the Air Force and was responsible for developing the Secretary’s policies and budget submissions for several major space programs. Mr. Bryson has experience in developing and executing plans to maximize the on-orbit lifetime of failed and/or aging spacecraft, and he has been directly or indirectly responsible for extended mission life on more than a dozen satellites and for recovering use of another dozen failed satellites.

BENJAMIN BUCHBINDER has extensive experience in the development and application of risk assessment methods, in the use of quantitative methods to support management decision making related to safety and programmatic risk, and in the communication of risk assessment results and their significance to a wide range of audiences. Mr. Buchbinder served as risk assessment program manager for



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