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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants

VOLUME 1

Subcommittee on Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants

Committee on Toxicology

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS

Washington, D.C.
www.nap.edu



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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants VOLUME 1 Subcommittee on Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants Committee on Toxicology Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This project was supported by Contract No. DAMD17-99-C-9049 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-09225-8 International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-09225-6 Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press 500 Fifth Street, NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2007 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants COMMITTEE ON EMERGENCY AND CONTINUOUS EXPOSURE GUIDANCE LEVELS FOR SELECTED SUBMARINE CONTAMINANTS Members ERNEST MCCONNELL (Chair), ToxPath, Inc., Raleigh, NC RAKESH DIXIT, Johnson and Johnson, PRD, L.L.C., San Diego, CA DAVID DORMAN, CIIT Centers for Health Research, Research Triangle Park, NC MAUREEN FEUSTON, Sanofi–Synthelabo Research, Malvern, PA JACK HARKEMA, Michigan State University, East Lansing HOWARD KIPEN, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ LOREN KOLLER, Environmental Health & Toxicology, Corvallis, OR JOHN O'DONOGHUE, University of Rochester, Honeoye Falls, NY JOYCE TSUJI, Exponent, Inc., Bellevue, WA ANNETTA WATSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN CALVIN WILLHITE, California Department of Toxic Substances Control, Berkeley Staff ELLEN K. MANTUS, Project Director MARY FOX, Program Officer RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor KELLY CLARK, Editor JENNIFER SAUNDERS, Research Associate MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Research Associate LAURA E. WATERS, Senior Project Assistant ROBERT POLICELLI, Project Assistant Sponsor U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY Members WILLIAM E. HALPERIN (Chair), New Jersey Medical School, Newark LAWRENCE S. BETTS, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk EDWARD C. BISHOP, HDR Engineering, Inc., Omaha, NE JAMESV. BRUCKNER, University of Georgia, Athens GARY P. CARLSON, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN MARION EHRICH, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg SIDNEY GREEN, Howard University, Washington, DC MERYL KAROL, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh JAMES MCDOUGAL, Wright State University School of Medicine, Dayton, OH ROGER MCINTOSH, Science Applications International Corporation, Baltimore, MD GERALD WOGAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge Staff KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer SUSAN N. J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer JENNIFER SAUNDERS, Associate Program Officer AIDA NEEL, Program Associate MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Research Associate TAMARA DAWSON, Senior Program Assistant RADIAH A. ROSE, Senior Editorial Assistant

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY1 Members JONATHAN M. SAMET (Chair), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD RAMÓN ALVAREZ, Environmental Defense, Austin, TX JOHN M. BALBUS, Environmental Defense, Washington, DC DALLAS BURTRAW, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC JAMES S. BUS, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI COSTEL D. DENSON, University of Delaware, Newark E. DONALD ELLIOTT, Willkie Farr & Gallagher LLP, Washington, DC MARY R. ENGLISH, University of Tennessee, Knoxville J. PAUL GILMAN, Oak Ridge Center for Advanced Studies, Oak Ridge, TN SHERRI W. GOODMAN, Center for Naval Analyses, Alexandria, VA JUDITH A. GRAHAM, American Chemistry Council, Arlington, VA WILLIAM P. HORN, Birch, Horton, Bittner and Cherot, Washington, DC JAMES H. JOHNSON JR., Howard University, Washington, DC WILLIAM M. LEWIS, JR., University of Colorado, Boulder JUDITH L. MEYER, University of Georgia, Athens DENNIS D. MURPHY, University of Nevada, Reno PATRICK Y. O’BRIEN, ChevronTexaco Energy Technology Company, Richmond, CA DOROTHY E. PATTON (retired), Chicago, IL DANNY D. REIBLE, University of Texas, Austin JOSEPH V. RODRICKS, ENVIRON International Corporation, Arlington, VA ARMISTEAD G. RUSSELL, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta ROBERT F. SAWYER, University of California, Berkeley LISA SPEER, Natural Resources Defense Council, New York, NY KIMBERLY M. THOMPSON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MONICA G. TURNER, University of Wisconsin, Madison MARK J. UTELL, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY CHRIS G. WHIPPLE, ENVIRON International Corporation, Emeryville, CA LAUREN ZEISE, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland Senior Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar 1 This study was planned, overseen, and supported by the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology.

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Senior Program Officer for Environmental Sciences and Engineering KULBIR BAKSHI, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology EILEEN N. ABT, Senior Program Officer for Risk Analysis KARL E. GUSTAVSON, Senior Program Officer K. JOHN HOLMES, Senior Program Officer ELLEN K. MANTUS, Senior Program Officer SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer SUZANNE VAN DRUNICK, Senior Program Officer STEVEN K. GIBB, Program Officer for Strategic Communications RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Senior Editor

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants OTHER REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY Scientific Review of the Proposed Risk Assessment Bulletin from the Office of Management and Budget (2007) Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards (2006) Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues (2006) New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (2006) Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals (2006) Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (2006) State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions (2006) Superfund and Mining Megasites—Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (2005) Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005) Air Quality Management in the United States (2004) Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River (2004) Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004) Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin (2004) Cumulative Environmental Effects of Alaska North Slope Oil and Gas Development (2003) Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002) Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002) The Airliner Cabin Environment and Health of Passengers and Crew (2002) Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001) Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001) Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001) A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (five volumes, 2000-2006) Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000) Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2000) Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000) Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000) Waste Incineration and Public Health (1999) Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999) Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (four volumes, 1998-2004) The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years (1997) Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet (1996) Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996) Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995) Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995)

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants Biologic Markers (five volumes, 1989-1995) Review of EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (three volumes, 1994-1995) Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994) Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993) Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992) Science and the National Parks (1992) Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants (1991) Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991) Decline of the Sea Turtles (1990) Copies of these reports may be ordered from the National Academies Press (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 www.nap.edu

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants OTHER REPORTS OF THE COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY Review of the Department of Defense Research Program on Low-Level Exposures to Chemical Warfare Agents (2005) Review of the Army's Technical Guides on Assessing and Managing Chemical Hazards to Deployed Personnel (2004) Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants (two volumes, 2004-2006) Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 (2003) Review of Submarine Escape Action Levels for Selected Chemicals (2002) Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals (2001) Evaluating Chemical and Other Agent Exposures for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity (2001) Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants (five volumes, 2000-2006) Review of the US Navy’s Human Health Risk Assessment of the Naval Air Facility at Atsugi, Japan (2000) Methods for Developing Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (2000) Review of the U.S. Navy Environmental Health Center’s Health-Hazard Assessment Process (2000) Review of the U.S. Navy’s Exposure Standard for Manufactured Vitreous Fibers (2000) Re-Evaluation of Drinking-Water Guidelines for Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate (2000) Submarine Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Hydrofluorocarbons: HFC-236fa, HFC-23, and HFC-404a (2000) Review of the U.S. Army’s Health Risk Assessments for Oral Exposure to Six Chemical-Warfare Agents (1999) Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants (three volumes, 1997-1999) Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emission Toxicants (1998) Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons: HFC-134a and HCFC-123 (1996) Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors (1996) Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants (four volumes, 1994-2000)

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants following people for their review of this report: Janice Chambers, Mississippi State University; Rory Conolly, CIIT Centers for Health Research; Dan Costa, Environmental Protection Agency; Darol Dodd, ManTech Environmental Technology, Inc.; Mark Frampton, University of Rochester School of Medicine; Judith Graham, American Chemistry Council; Alan Hall, Toxicology Consulting and Medical Translating Services; and Barry L. Johnson, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Joseph Borzelleca, Virginia Commonwealth University. Appointed by the Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the subcommittee and the institution. The subcommittee thanks Commander Warren Jederberg for his support of this project and his assistance in obtaining necessary background materials. The subcommittee also gratefully acknowledges the following people for making presentations: Mr. Rich Hagar (Naval Sea Systems Command), Captain Victoria Cassano (Bureau of Medicine and Surgery), Mr. James Crawl (Naval Environmental Health Center), Dr. Sal DiNardi (Naval Submarine Medical Research Lab), and Dr. Robert Young (Oak Ridge National Laboratory). In addition, the subcommittee also had the opportunity to visit a nuclear attack submarine, the USS Hartford, in dock at the U.S. Naval Submarine Base New London in Groton, CT. The crew were extremely helpful in providing information about conditions on the submarine. The subcommittee greatly appreciated the tour and found the information useful in its deliberations. The subcommittee is grateful for the assistance of the NRC staff in preparing this report: Ellen Mantus, project director; James Reisa, director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Kulbir Bakshi, senior program officer for toxicology; Mary Fox, program officer; Jennifer Saunders and Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic, research associates; Ruth E. Crossgrove, senior editor; Kelly Clark, assistant editor;

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants Laura Waters and Robert Policelli, project assistants; and Sam Bardley, library assistant. Finally, I thank the members of the subcommittee for their dedicated efforts throughout the development of this report. Ernest McConnell, Chair Subcommittee on Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants Contents     SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   8      The Subcommittee’s Charge,   8      Population Characteristics,   9      The Submarine Environment,   11      The Subcommittee’s Approach to Its Charge,   15      Organization of the Report,   19      References,   19 2   ACROLEIN   23      Physical and Chemical Properties,   23      Occurrence and Use,   23      Summary of Toxicity,   25      Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations,   34      Inhalation Exposure Levels from the NRC and Other Organizations,   35      Subcommittee Recommendations,   35      Data Adequacy and Research Needs,   38      References,   39 3   CARBON DIOXIDE   46      Physical and Chemical Properties,   46      Occurrence and Use,   46      Summary of Toxicity,   47      Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations,   57      Inhalation Exposure Levels from NRC and Other Organizations,   58      Subcommittee Recommendations,   58

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants                 Data Adequacy and Research Needs,   62      References,   62 4   CARBON MONOXIDE   67      Physical and Chemical Properties,   67      Occurrence,   67      Summary of Toxicity,   68      Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations,   89      Inhalation Exposure Levels from the NRC and Other Organizations,   90      Subcommittee Recommendations,   90      Data Adequacy and Research Needs,   94      References,   95 5   FORMALDEHYDE   103      Physical and Chemical Properties,   103      Occurrence and Use,   103      Summary of Toxicity,   105      Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations,   124      Inhalation Exposure Levels from the NRC and Other Organizations,   125      Subcommittee Recommendations,   127      Carcinogenicity Assessment,   129      Data Adequacy and Research Needs,   131      References,   132 6   HYDRAZINE   139      Physical and Chemical Properties,   139      Occurrence and Use,   139      Summary of Toxicity,   141      Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations,   154      Inhalation Exposure Levels from the NRC and Other Organizations,   155      Subcommittee Recommendations,   155      Carcinogenicity Assessment,   159      Data Adequacy and Research Needs,   161      References,   161 7   METHANOL   167      Physical and Chemical Properties,   167

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants                 Occurrence and Use,   167      Summary of Toxicity,   169      Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations,   180      Inhalation Exposure Levels from the NRC and Other Organizations,   183      Subcommittee Recommendations,   185      Data Adequacy and Research Needs,   189      References,   189 8   MONOETHANOLAMINE   195      Physical and Chemical Properties,   195      Occurrence and Use,   195      Summary of Toxicity,   196      Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations,   202      Inhalation Exposure Levels from the NRC and Other Organizations,   202      Subcommittee Recommendations,   206      Data Adequacy and Research Needs,   206      References,   206 9   NITRIC OXIDE   209      Physical and Chemical Properties,   209      Occurrence and Use,   209      Summary of Toxicity,   210      Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations,   215      Inhalation Exposure Levels from the NRC and Other Organizations,   216      Subcommittee Recommendations,   217      Data Adequacy and Research Needs,   218      References,   219 10   NITROGEN DIOXIDE   223      Physical and Chemical Properties,   223      Occurrence and Use,   223      Summary of Toxicity,   224      Toxicokinetic and Mechanistic Considerations,   235      Inhalation Exposure Levels from the NRC and Other Organizations,   236      Subcommittee Recommendations,   237

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants                 Data Adequacy and Research Needs,   240      References,   240 11   OXYGEN   252      Physical and Chemical Properties,   252      Occurrence and Use,   252      Summary of Toxicity and Adverse Responses Associated with Low-Oxygen Environments,   253      Physiologic, Toxicokinetic, and Mechanistic Considerations,   268      Subcommittee Recommendations,   269      Data Adequacy and Research Needs,   271      References,   272     APPENDIX A         Biographical Information on the Subcommittee on Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants   279     GLOSSARY   283 BOXES 4-1   Adjustment for the Low-Oxygen Atmosphere,   95 11-1   Terms Related to Gas Pressures and Oxygen Physiology,   254 FIGURES 1-1   Generalized schematic of a nuclear-powered attack submarine,   13 4-1   Carbon monoxide concentrations reached in blood (percent saturation at various durations of exposure) in a normal human subject as a function of inspired CO,   70 11-1   Hypothetical human blood oxygen dissociation curve at 37°C, pH = 7.4,   268 TABLES S-1   Comparison of Navy’s Exposure Guidelines with Those Recommended by the Subcommittee,   6 1-1   Characteristics of Crew and Patrols for U.S. Navy Submarines,   2-1   Physical and Chemical Properties of Acrolein,   24

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants     2-2   Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Acrolein from NRC and Other Agencies,   36 2-3   Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Acrolein,   37 3-1   Physical and Chemical Properties of Carbon Dioxide,   47 3-2   Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Carbon Dioxide from NRC and Other Agencies,   59 3-3   Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Carbon Dioxide,   60 4-1   Physical and Chemical Properties of Carbon Monoxide,   68 4-2   Human Toxicity Summary,   72 4-3   Animal Toxicity Summary,   84 4-4   Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Carbon Monoxide from NRC and Other Agencies,   91 4-5   Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Carbon Monoxide,   92 5-1   Physical and Chemical Properties of Formaldehyde,   104 5-2   Irritant Effects of Formaldehyde in Controlled Human Studies,   111 5-3   Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Formaldehyde from NRC and Other Agencies,   126 5-4   Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Formaldehyde,   128 6-1   Physical and Chemical Properties of Hydrazine,   140 6-2   Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Hydrazine from NRC and Other Organizations,   157 6-3   Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Hydrazine,   158 7-1   Physical and Chemical Properties of Methanol,   168 7-2   Blood Methanol and Formate Concentrations Observed in Humans Following Experimental Methanol Exposures,   173 7-3   Experimental Parameters of Batterman et al. (1998),   175 7-4   Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Methanol from NRC and Other Agencies,   184 7-5   Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Methanol,   186 8-1   Physical and Chemical Data on Monoethanolamine,   196 8-2   Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Monoethanolamine from NRC and Other Agencies,   203

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants     8-3   Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Monoethanolamine,   204 9-1   Physical and Chemical Data on Nitric Oxide,   210 9-2   Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Nitric Oxide from Other Agencies,   216 9-3   Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Nitric Oxide,   217 10-1   Physical and Chemical Data on Nitrogen Dioxide,   224 10-2   Selected Inhalation Exposure Levels for Nitrogen Dioxide from NRC and Other Agencies,   237 10-3   Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Nitrogen Dioxide,   238 11-1   Physical and Chemical Properties of Oxygen,   253 11-2   Arterial Blood Gas Values Associated with Different Altitudes,   257 11-3   Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Oxygen,   270

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Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants VOLUME 1

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