community-based nonformal organizations provide opportunities for the formation and practice of citizenship?

  • How do civic participation and attitudes toward politics differ between young citizens in new democracies and young citizens in established democracies? What does it mean to be a citizen in an authoritarian state?

  • What are the appropriate indicators for measuring the agency and community engagement of young people?

  • What are the levels and types of political processes that young people participate in? What motivates them to engage or disengage with political processes?

  • How does the acquisition of the rights and responsibilities of citizenship relate to the success of other transitions to adulthood?

  • How are emerging forms of media (e.g., the Internet, mobile phones, independent radio) affecting the ways in which citizenship formation and practice are evolving?

  • How are rising levels of school enrollment influencing the relationship between citizens and the state?

  • What are the strategies used by young people to maintain social connections in the developing world’s rapidly growing urban centers?

  • How have the transnational flows of people, capital, and communication technologies influenced the formation and practice of citizenship and community engagement of young people?

  • What forms of transnational activism do young people pursue? How are they changing in response to new information and communication technologies? What issues motivate these movements?

  • What role does religion play in expressing political views and identities among young people?

  • To what extent is it important to understand how the determinants of citizenship and the impact of citizenship differ by groups defined by such characteristics as gender, class, ethnicity, race, caste, tribe, and religion? To what extent can causal effects be identified for all these aspects of the determinants or the impact of citizenship?

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