Index

A

Abortion, 524

access to, 48

contraceptive use and, 218

data sources, 215

health risks in, 5, 48, 191, 215, 242, 244

motivation, 218

policy recommendations, 247

prevalence, 215-216

provider characteristics and selection, 217-218, 244

research needs, 249

self-induced, 216

time during gestation, 216-217, 244

Adult roles, 3, 31

gender role socialization, 6, 19, 51, 70, 114-116, 169, 208, 266, 580

globalization effects, 588

indicators of successful transition to adulthood, 3-4, 26, 416

role of school in preparation for, 70

succession of, in transition to adulthood, 27, 31, 416

Africa

abortion practices, 218

access to mass media, 49, 409

access to perinatal health care, 544, 545

age differences between spouses, 445-447, 448

age patterns of first parenthood, 509, 511, 512-514, 516, 518, 519, 548, 549, 578

challenges for young people, 596

child labor trends, 342

child marriage, 8

condom use, 183

contraceptive use, 5, 209-212, 243

demographic trends, 40-41

dowry and bridewealth practices, 462-463

economic growth, 2, 20, 37, 59, 325

family structure and function, 56, 57

female genital cutting in, 193

female-headed households, 324

HIV/AIDS mortality, 174

HIV/AIDS patterns and trends, 3, 5, 47, 174, 179-180, 181, 182, 577, 583-584

HIV awareness and knowledge, 182

injury mortality, 187-188

labor force participation, 579

marriage patterns and trends, 419, 420, 421, 423-425, 427, 432, 437, 442, 450, 456, 460, 479

maternal mortality, 191

mortality patterns, 5, 11, 174, 191, 583-584

population growth, 3, 18

poverty in, 3, 63, 579, 596

premarital childbearing, 9, 525, 530-533, 534-535, 549, 578



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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries Index A Abortion, 524 access to, 48 contraceptive use and, 218 data sources, 215 health risks in, 5, 48, 191, 215, 242, 244 motivation, 218 policy recommendations, 247 prevalence, 215-216 provider characteristics and selection, 217-218, 244 research needs, 249 self-induced, 216 time during gestation, 216-217, 244 Adult roles, 3, 31 gender role socialization, 6, 19, 51, 70, 114-116, 169, 208, 266, 580 globalization effects, 588 indicators of successful transition to adulthood, 3-4, 26, 416 role of school in preparation for, 70 succession of, in transition to adulthood, 27, 31, 416 Africa abortion practices, 218 access to mass media, 49, 409 access to perinatal health care, 544, 545 age differences between spouses, 445-447, 448 age patterns of first parenthood, 509, 511, 512-514, 516, 518, 519, 548, 549, 578 challenges for young people, 596 child labor trends, 342 child marriage, 8 condom use, 183 contraceptive use, 5, 209-212, 243 demographic trends, 40-41 dowry and bridewealth practices, 462-463 economic growth, 2, 20, 37, 59, 325 family structure and function, 56, 57 female genital cutting in, 193 female-headed households, 324 HIV/AIDS mortality, 174 HIV/AIDS patterns and trends, 3, 5, 47, 174, 179-180, 181, 182, 577, 583-584 HIV awareness and knowledge, 182 injury mortality, 187-188 labor force participation, 579 marriage patterns and trends, 419, 420, 421, 423-425, 427, 432, 437, 442, 450, 456, 460, 479 maternal mortality, 191 mortality patterns, 5, 11, 174, 191, 583-584 population growth, 3, 18 poverty in, 3, 63, 579, 596 premarital childbearing, 9, 525, 530-533, 534-535, 549, 578

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries religious movements, 50 school participation and achievement, 3, 72, 73, 74, 76-77, 79, 81, 82-83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 95, 102, 107, 108, 142 schooling for pregnant students, 545 sexual behaviors, 197-198, 200, 204, 206 time to first birth after marriage, 527 youth employment patterns, 7, 341-342 See also specific country Agriculture, 326, 327, 331, 584-585 farm subsidies, 334-335 Alcohol abuse, 6, 226-227, 244. See also Substance use Argentina, 50 job training programs, 338 labor market trends, 328 school participation and performance, 92, 94 Armenia, 375 Asia, 595-596 access to perinatal health care, 544, 545 age differences between spouses, 448 age patterns of first parenthood, 511-512, 514, 516, 518, 519, 548, 549 child marriage, 8 contraceptive use, 209, 243 demographic trends, 2, 18, 40-41 dowry and bridewealth practices, 462, 465, 466 economic growth, 2, 20, 37, 54, 59, 325-326, 580 group identification and transition to adulthood, 586-587 HIV/AIDS mortality, 174 HIV awareness and knowledge, 182 knowledge and interest in politics among young people, 370 labor force participation, 278, 579 labor market trends, 7 marriage patterns and trends, 419, 420, 421, 436, 460, 480 maternal mortality, 191 motor vehicle-related mortality, 188 organizational membership and participation, 386 poverty in, 63, 579 premarital childbearing, 9 rates of return to schooling, 105, 332 school participation and achievement, 76-77, 79, 83, 85, 87, 107, 108, 142, 436 self-reported health assessments, 177-178 sexual behaviors, 197-198, 205 smoking patterns, 221 substance use, 244 time to first birth after marriage, 527, 529 youth employment patterns, 7, 341-342 See also specific country B Bangladesh age differences between spouses, 447 child labor in, 300, 334 HIV awareness and knowledge, 183 labor force participation, 278, 303-304 marriage patterns and trends, 418, 436, 438, 465-466, 473, 479 maternal mortality and morbidity, 192 reproductive health interventions, 238 school participation and performance, 95, 124-125, 129, 130-131, 136-137 Benin, 450, 514 Bolivia, 94, 201 Botswana HIV infection, 182 premarital childbearing, 535 reproductive health interventions, 233 Brazil, 50, 380 child labor in, 327, 340-341 consequences of premature parenthood, 524 contraceptive use, 212 demographic trends, 319-322 HIV infection risk, 181 homicide rates, 190 labor force participation, 278 migration patterns, 313, 315-317 political attitudes and participation, 384, 411 rates of return to schooling, 105 reproductive health interventions, 231 school participation and achievement, 87, 92, 94-95, 98, 101, 128 sexual behaviors, 200 transitions from school to labor market, 288-291 Breastfeeding, 543 Burkina Faso, 468-469 age patterns of first parenthood, 514 marriage trends and patterns, 463, 479

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries migration from, 315 school participation and achievement, 95 schoolgirl pregnancy, 540 C Cameroon, 106 abortion practices in, 216, 217, 218 age of puberty, 194 age patterns of first parenthood, 514 citizenship participation, 377 contraceptive use, 212 marriage patterns and trends, 450 premarital childbearing, 535 reproductive health interventions, 233, 235 school participation and achievement, 95 schoolgirl pregnancy, 541 sexual behaviors, 200 Child labor data sources, 294, 296 definition, 23, 294 economic activity rates, 295 economic outcomes, 265-266 educational grants and subsidies to eliminate, 339-341, 343, 581 effective policy interventions, 332 family economic status and, 323-324, 334, 342 family size and, 324-325 health consequences, 297 international policies to eliminate, 333-334 labor demand and, 327, 328 long-term effects for workers, 301-302 mechanization of labor and, 331 national labor standards, 335-336 policy and program recommendations, 343 prevalence, 295-296 research recommendations, 344 schooling and, 297-301 trends, 296-297, 341 Childbirth. See Pregnancy and childbirth Chile, 399 consequences of premature parenthood, 524 job training programs, 338 knowledge and interest in politics among young people, 373 maternal mortality and morbidity, 192 motor vehicle-related mortality, 189 political attitudes and participation, 384-385 reproductive health interventions, 231-232 school participation and performance, 87, 93, 94, 140-141 China, 39, 468 abortion practices in, 217-218 distorted sex ratios, 443-444 economic growth, 37, 54 HIV infection patterns, 181, 242 influence of traditional norms and values, 51-52 labor force participation, 279 labor market trends, 328-329 marriage patterns and trends, 418, 419-420, 456, 459, 473 poverty rate, 63 rates of return to schooling, 104 reproductive health care, 48 school participation patterns, 72, 74 smoking behaviors, 223 suicide rate, 190 time to first birth after marriage, 527, 529 transitions from school to labor market, 288-291 Citizenship, 31, 346-415 alienation and disaffection, 350, 351, 406 attributes of successful transition, 346-347 community engagement, 391-397 concept of agency in, 351-352 data sources, 347-348, 368-370, 412-413 definitions and concepts of, 349-352 democratization trends, 39-40 economic status and, 350 feminist theory, 351, 373-374 gender differences, 404-406, 413, 414, 580-581 globalization and, 347, 350-351 human rights and, 352 importance of, 346, 412 inclusive societies, 351 as indicator of successful transition to adulthood, 4, 26 institutional influences on, 397 international organizations and, 53, 353-356 interrelationship of developmental domains, 347

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries key findings, 412-413 knowledge and interest in politics among young people, 370-374, 400-401 livelihood enhancement programs, 402-403, 414 media influence, 408-411 military service and, 375, 406-407 national service and, 407-408 nonschool-based programs promoting, 400-403 organizational membership and participation, 385-390, 403, 413 policy recommendations, 413-414 political activism, 377-385 political party membership, 375-377 postcolonial conceptualization, 349-350 research recommendations, 414-415 rights and responsibilities of young people, 356-365, 412 role of school in preparation for, 70-71, 397-400, 413 scope of, 7, 347 self-perception and, 414 social relationships and, 349, 350 trends, 7, 580-581 trust in institutions, 392-393, 396-397, 401, 413 volunteerism, 402 voting behaviors, 374 work and, 404-406 Colombia, 399 age patterns of first parenthood, 512 homicide rates, 190 knowledge and interest in politics among young people, 373 labor market, 328-329 political attitudes and participation, 385 school participation and performance, 94, 128, 138 sexual behaviors, 208 Community-level context, 55-58 perceived safety, 391, 392 reproductive health interventions, 238-239 school administration, 131-132 school performance, 110 social engagement, 391-397 Conceptual framework, 32-63 analytical levels, 33-35 changes in transition to adulthood, 35 concept of causality in, 28-29, 35 concept of change in, 35 concept of global convergence, 58-63 contextual approach, 33-35 Condom use access, 47-48 behavioral influences, 57 educational attainment and, 245 HIV infection risk and, 181, 183 mass media campaigns to promote, 233 patterns and trends, 5, 183-187, 243-244 peer educator program to promote, 58, 235 research needs, 250 sex education and, 231, 232 workplace-based health promotion, 237-238 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 193 Conscription, 356, 357-364 Contraceptive use, 5 abortion rate and, 218 access, 47-48, 209 age patterns, 213 behavioral influences, 57 educational attainment and, 209-212 knowledge, 209, 213-214 patterns and trends, 48, 209-214, 243 peer educator programs to promote use of, 57-58, 235 policy recommendations, 246, 247 religious orientation and, 212 research needs, 249 school-based interventions to promote, 231-232 at sexual initiation, 212-213 sources of information, 57 urban residency and, 212 See also Condom use Costa Rica, 87 alcohol consumption, 226 HIV infection risk, 181 Côte d’Ivoire age patterns of first parenthood, 514 marriage patterns and trends, 450 school participation and achievement, 95 Country income age patterns of first parenthood and, 518 demand for labor and, 325-327 school achievement and, 83, 87 school attendance and, 46, 72, 73, 74, 76-78, 152-155

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries Criminal justice system public attitudes and beliefs, 396-397 rights of young people, 356-357 Criteria for successful transition to adulthood, 3-4, 26, 168, 169, 346-347, 416, 506-507 Cuba, 94, 215, 218 Cyprus, 93 D Data collection abortion practices, 215 access to national censuses and surveys, 591-592 analytical strategy, 27-29 child labor, 294, 296 citizenship participation, 347-348, 368-370, 412-413 contextual specification, 589-590, 593-594 cross-sectional surveys, 590 data quality assessment, 591 employment, 28, 268, 269, 273, 279-287 evaluation of programs and policies, 22, 30, 581-582, 585, 594-595 experimental research, 27-29 gaps in current knowledge base, 585-589 health status, 248 marriage trends and characteristics, 417-419 mortality, 173-174 parenthood, 507 recommendations for, 12-13, 589-595 research designs, 594-595 school performance, 118-120 school policy outcomes, 141-142 school research needs, 146-147 sexual behavior, 195, 196, 200, 248 sexual coercion, 205 smoking behaviors, 219-221 sources of transition data, 28, 29, 30, 71-72, 90 Democratization, 39-40, 52, 580-581 Demographic patterns age differences between spouses, 444-450, 480 age patterns of first parenthood, 508-515 challenges for developing countries, 44-45 child dependency ratios, 41 childbearing age, 8-9 distorted sex ratios in Asia, 443-444 dowry practices and, 465 employment patterns, 7 family size and structure trends, 18, 41-42, 98 marriage age, 8, 479-480 population growth, 3 projections, 2, 18, 40-41 regional distribution, 17-18, 40 research needs, 586 supply of entry-level labor, 319-322, 341-342 urban populations, 43-44 young population, 2, 17-18, 40 Depression, 176-177 Disability-adjusted life years, 175-176 Discrimination against women, in marriage, 481, 482 in employment, 330-331, 333, 587 research recommendations, 344 school policy recommendations, 145 in schooling, 139-140 See also Gender discrimination Divorce, 364-365, 416-417, 464 Djibouti, 193 Dominican Republic, 94, 370, 384 Dowry, 460-461, 462, 464-466, 481, 482 E Early phase of transition definition, 23 school participation patterns, 72 Economic growth demand for labor and, 322, 325-327 educational attainment and, 45, 143 globalization outcomes, 20, 36-37 labor market trends and, 7, 41 marriage patterns and, 473 prerequisites for individual opportunity, 18 rates of return to schooling and, 104, 143 regional differences, 2-3, 20-21, 54, 58-59, 580 structural reforms for, 326-327 worker health and, 172 See also Country income; Poverty

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries Ecuador, 406 labor force participation, 278 reproductive health interventions, 234 Educational attainment and performance availability of teaching resources and, 137 child labor and, 301 class size and, 135-137 contraceptive use and, 209-212, 245 by country, 162-167 critical thinking skills, 578 data sources, 90 early childbearing and, 518-519 employment outcomes, 6-7, 18, 68, 103, 105, 129, 266-267, 310, 329, 341, 342 family factors, 97-99 gender differences, 4, 83-84, 87, 88, 92, 95, 139, 142, 145-146, 162-167, 580 by grade, 164-165 HIV and, 187 household wealth and, 102 literacy, 90-91, 397 marriage behavior and, 106, 434-437, 480 marriage patterns and, 425-427 political knowledge and participation and, 400-401 postsecondary education, 88, 104, 166-167 recommendations to improve, 145-146 school voucher program outcomes, 140-141 sexual behavior and, 10-11, 201-202, 203, 244-245, 577, 584 standardized test scores, 91-96, 143, 147 teacher factors, 138-139 technological advancement and, 331-332 trends, 83-88, 95-96, 341, 578 See also School attendance Egypt, 405, 468-469 age of puberty, 194 female genital cutting in, 193 labor force participation, 278, 303, 305-307, 331 labor market trends, 328, 329 marriage patterns and trends, 441, 442-443 maternal mortality and morbidity, 192 public works employment, 339 school participation and performance, 95, 96, 116, 122, 130, 132 vocational education programs, 337-338 El Salvador, 131-132, 190 Employment. See Labor force participation; Work Ethiopia, 331, 447 Europe, central and eastern economic growth, 37, 59 substance use, 244 F Families child dependency ratios, 41 determinants of labor participation, 324-325 determinants of school participation and performance, 97-99 differences in size and structure, 55-56, 98-99 female household headship, 324-325 household manager role, 31 household work burden, 270, 272-273, 298-299, 324-325, 340 influence of, in transition to adulthood, 55, 56-57, 58 intrafamilial resource allocation, 586 living arrangements of newly married couples, 467-469 school expectations, 96 trends in size and structure, 18, 41-42, 324 See also Household wealth; Parenthood Family planning services, 545 access to, 47-48, 209 recommendations, 246, 550 Feminist thought, 351, 373-374 G Gender differences age at marriage, 8, 420 age patterns of first parenthood, 508-509 alcohol use, 226, 244 citizenship participation, 404-406, 413 conceptualization of success in transition to adulthood, 25 contraceptive use, 48, 212-213 discrimination. See Gender discrimination effects of double shift school schedule, 132

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries employment patterns and trends, 6, 267-268, 404-405 equal rights outcomes, 25 globalization effects, 35-36 health risks, 169 HIV/AIDS mortality, 5 HIV infection patterns, 179, 180-181, 242 HIV infection risk factors, 181 homicide, 189-190 household work participation, 270-273, 580 knowledge and interest in politics, 7, 370-372, 373-374, 413, 580-581 labor force participation, 273-279, 302-308 legal rights, 364-365 leisure time, 390 military service, 406-407 mortality patterns, 173, 242 policy and program recommendations to improve equality, 11, 583 political activism, 384, 385 preparation for employment, 266 research needs, 147, 586, 587 role socialization, 6, 19, 51, 70, 114-116, 169, 208, 266, 580 school enrollment grant and subsidy programs, 124-125 school expectations, 96 school participation and achievement, 4, 45-46, 72-73, 74, 76-79, 80-81, 82, 83-84, 87, 88, 92, 95, 98-99, 139, 142-143, 148-167, 580, 586 sexual behaviors, 195, 203-204, 208 smoking behaviors, 221-222, 244 suicide rates, 190 transitions from school to labor market, 288-291 unemployment, 310 work-school time use patterns, 270-273, 341 See also Women’s issues Gender discrimination school eligibility rules, 123 school policy recommendations, 145-146 teacher attitudes, 114-116, 139 Genital cutting, female, 193-194, 482-483 Georgia, 370 Ghana, 108 age patterns of first parenthood, 514 marriage patterns and trends, 450 reproductive health interventions, 235 Globalization citizenship participation and, 347, 350-351 conceptual framework for studying transitions to adulthood, 33-36 distribution of outcomes, 1, 20-21, 32-33, 37-38, 39, 58-63 economic impact, 36, 37 implications for education, 38, 46, 89, 143 implications for health, 170 implications for transition to adulthood, 1, 17, 32-33 individual differences in effects of, 35-36 influence of transnational organizations and agreements, 52-53 labor markets and, 38, 265-266, 587 national governance and, 53-55 political attitudes and, 381 research needs, 588-589 scope of change in, 32, 36 technology development and diffusion, 38-39 trade policies, 12 in transmission of cultural values, 49 Grants and subsidies, educational, 124-129, 144, 300-301, 339-341, 343 effectiveness, 4, 581 Guatemala age differences between spouses, 447 consequences of premature parenthood, 524 maternal mortality and morbidity, 192 sexual behaviors, 201 Guinea, 57 age patterns of first parenthood, 514 reproductive health interventions, 233 Guineau-Bissau, 192 H Haiti, 180, 182 Health, 168-250. See also Mental health; Physical health; Reproductive health HIV/AIDS, 19 access to care, 47 age at sexual initiation and, 199-200 challenges for sub-Saharan Africa, 3, 47, 170, 596 disability-related life years, 176 educational attainment and, 187, 245

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries future prospects, 182, 242 gender differences, 179, 180-181, 242 implications for childbearing decisions, 543, 586 infection rates, 179-181 interventions to prevent, 236, 237-238, 246-247 marriage and, 181, 243, 443 maternal, 175, 182, 543 mortality, 5, 47, 173, 174, 577, 583-584 policy recommendations, 246-247 public knowledge, 182-183 research needs, 586 risk factors, 179, 181-182, 187, 243 sexual behavior and, 179, 181-182, 204 trends, 47, 182-187, 242 Homicide, 189-190, 242 Honduras, 94 Household wealth consequences of premature parenthood, 523-524 discrimination in schools based on, 139-140 intrafamilial resource allocation, 586 labor force participation and, 323, 342 living arrangements of newly married couples, 467-469 marriage patterns and, 420-421, 422, 425-427 mortality and morbidity risk and, 245 rates of return to schooling, 103-106, 143 school attendance and, 75-76, 79, 80, 102, 123, 142-143, 145 See also Poverty Human rights citizenship conceptualization, 352 UN conventions and agreements, 353-355 I India abortion practices, 216, 217 age of puberty, 194 dowry practices, 465, 466 economic growth, 37 employment assistance programs, 338-339 employment patterns, 308-310 family structure and influence, 56 HIV infection, 242 knowledge and interest in politics among young people, 370 labor force participation, 279 marriage patterns and trends, 443-444, 456, 459, 473, 478 poverty rate, 63 rates of return to schooling, 104, 331, 332 reproductive health care, 48, 240 school participation and performance, 72, 74, 77-78, 99, 136, 141, 144 sexual behaviors, 204, 206, 208 smoking patterns, 221 social significance of childbirth in marriage, 529-530 time to first birth after marriage, 529 time use patterns, 272 vocational education programs, 337 Indonesia, 541 abortion practices, 217 marriage patterns and trends, 454, 455, 456-457, 459 school participation and performance, 92, 93, 104, 130 sexual behaviors, 197 Information technology, 18, 19 access, 408-409, 411, 414 civic role, 408 labor market, 39 policy recommendations, 414 Inheritance laws, 364-365 Injury mortality, 175, 187-190 International Labour Organization, 23, 295-296, 333 International governance, 52-53, 54-55 International organizations. See Nongovernmental organizations; United Nations Internet, 18, 19, 39, 408-409, 411, 414 Iran, 93 political environment, 377-380 transitions from school to labor market, 288-291 Israel, 136 J Jamaica, 138, 212-213 Japan, 375 Java, 454 Jordan, 93, 402, 448-449

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries K Kenya, 52, 403 community connectedness, 393-396 demographic trends, 319-321 health intervention in schools, 134 marriage patterns and trends, 436, 450, 456, 463-464 migration patterns, 313-315 premarital childbearing, 535 reproductive health interventions, 238 school participation and performance, 95, 96, 114-116, 123, 124, 133, 137, 138-139 schoolgirl pregnancy, 540, 541 sexual behaviors, 203, 206, 208 time use patterns, 272 transitions from school to labor market, 288-291 L Labor force participation, 269, 331, 579 age of labor force entry, 6, 18, 41, 341 family factors, 324-325 gender differences, 273-279, 302-308 marriage and, 437-442 poverty and, 322-324 See also Work Later phase of transition, 23 Latin America and Caribbean abortion practices in, 216, 218 access to mass media, 49 access to perinatal health care, 544 age patterns of first parenthood, 509, 511, 512, 514, 516-519, 548-549 condom use, 183 contraceptive use, 5, 209, 243 demographic trends, 2, 40-41, 319 economic growth, 2, 37, 59, 325, 326, 580 employment patterns, 311 group identification and transition to adulthood, 586-587 HIV/AIDS mortality, 174 HIV awareness and knowledge, 182 HIV infection patterns, 180-181 homicide rates, 190, 242 knowledge and interest in politics among young people, 370, 372-373 labor force participation, 579 labor market trends, 7, 341-342 marriage patterns and trends, 418, 420, 421, 423-425, 437, 480, 580 marriage trends and patterns, 419 maternal mortality, 191 organizational membership and participation, 386-387 political attitudes and participation, 381-384 population growth, 18 poverty rate, 63 premarital childbearing, 9, 525, 530-533, 549 religious movements, 50 school participation and achievement, 76-77, 82-83, 85, 87, 88, 92, 94-95, 102, 125 school participation and performance, 72, 74 schooling for pregnant students, 545 self-reported health assessments, 178 sexual behaviors, 197-198, 206 time to first birth after marriage, 527, 529 trust in institutions, 392-393 See also specific country Law enforcement, 357 public attitudes and beliefs, 396-397 Leisure time, 390 Lesotho, 182, 453 Life expectancy, 46, 171-172 Livelihood enhancement programs, 402-403, 414 M Madagascar, 95, 450 Malawi, 124, 450, 472 Malaysia, 93, 181, 541 Mali, 450, 463, 514 Marriage, 31, 416-505 age differences between spouses, 444-450, 480, 580 age trends and patterns, 8, 243, 417-418, 419, 421-427, 454, 467, 473, 479-480, 580, 588 arranged, 56, 454-456, 457, 459, 481 bridewealth/bride-price, 462-464, 481, 482 causes for delay in, 427-444, 480, 588 consanguineous, 460-461

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries cost of, 442-443 data sources, 28, 417-419 definition, 417-418 distorted sex ratios and, 443-444 divorce risk, 416-417 dowries, 460-461, 462, 464-466, 481, 482 economic status and, 420-421, 422, 425-427, 467 educational attainment and, 106, 425-427, 434-437 freedom of choice in, 453-454, 482 HIV infection risk and, 181, 243, 443 as indicator of adulthood, 24, 416 key findings, 479-481 labor force participation and, 437-442 legal age for, 469-472, 473, 481-482 living arrangements after, 467-469 outcomes of early marriage, 469 policy recommendations, 481-483 polygyny, 450-453 prevalence, 417-421, 479-480 research needs, 587, 588 research recommendations, 483-484 risk factors in later age of, 18-19 rural-urban residence and, 425-427 sequencing of parenthood in, 525 spousal selection process, 454-460, 481 strategies for raising age of, 472-479, 481, 482 time to childbearing, 8, 527-529 Mass media, 50 access, 49, 408-409, 411 alcohol promotion, 244 citizenship participation and, 408-411 globalization and, 4 marriage patterns and trends and, 443 political influence, 409, 411 sexual and reproductive health campaigns, 232-234 smoking promotion, 48, 170, 240-241 utilization, 409 Mental health, 243 as indicator of successful transition to adulthood, 3, 26 morbidity, 176-177 physical health and, 177 research needs, 249 self-reported life satisfaction, 177-178 sexual coercion outcomes, 206-208 See also Self-perception Mexico abortion rate, 216 age differences between spouses, 447 alcohol consumption, 226 child labor in, 327 consequences of premature parenthood, 524 demographic trends, 319-321 HIV infection risk, 181 labor market trends, 328 migration from, 315 motor vehicle-related mortality, 189 political attitudes and participation, 384 premarital childbearing, 535 reproductive health interventions, 238 school participation and performance, 92, 94, 125-128, 136-137, 340 time use patterns, 270 transitions from school to labor market, 288-291 vocational education programs, 337 Middle East age differences between spouses, 447 age patterns of first parenthood, 511, 512, 514-515, 516, 518, 548-549 contraceptive use, 243 economic growth, 580 group identification and transition to adulthood, 586-587 HIV/AIDS mortality, 174 labor force participation, 579 marriage patterns and trends, 419, 420, 421, 460 maternal mortality, 191 premarital childbearing, 9, 525 religious movements, 50-51 school participation and achievement, 72, 76, 77, 79, 88 time to first birth after marriage, 529 youth employment patterns, 7, 341-342 Middle phase of transition definition, 23 school attendance patterns, 72-73 Migration age patterns, 313, 317 motivation, 315 rural to urban, 315-317 for work, 311-317 See also Urbanization Military service, 337, 356, 357-364, 375, 406-408 child soldiers, 407

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries Millennium Development Goals. See United Nations, Millennium Development Goals Morocco, 93, 137-138 Mortality and morbidity abortion-related, 215, 242 alcohol-related, 226 child labor outcomes, 297 consequences of premature parenthood, 522 data sources, 28 disability-adjusted life years, 175-176 economic vulnerability, 245 gender differences, 173, 242 HIV/AIDS, 5, 47, 173, 174, 176, 577, 583-584 life expectancy, 46, 47, 171-172 maternal, 191-194, 242, 519-522, 543, 578, 583-584 projections, 173 regional differences, 173-174 smoking-related, 219, 223 trends, 46-47, 171-179, 191-192, 241-242 See also Injury mortality Motor vehicle accidents, 48, 242, 248 injury prevention, 189 mortality, 175, 188-189 trends, 189 Mozambique, 182 N Namibia, 231 National income. See Country income Nepal age patterns of first parenthood, 512 child labor laws, 335-336 dowry practices, 465 marriage patterns and trends, 473 sexual behaviors, 197 Nicaragua, 128, 138 child labor in, 300, 340 gang membership, 387 time use patterns, 272 Nigeria, 468-469 age patterns of first parenthood, 514 consequences of premature parenthood, 524 marriage patterns and trends, 425, 442, 450, 463 premarital childbearing, 535, 536 reproductive health interventions, 231, 235 sexual behaviors, 208 Nongovernmental organizations, 19, 52, 53 political and civics programs, 400-403 youth citizenship activism programs, 355-356 See also United Nations Nutrition health status trends, 172 school feeding programs, 134 school participation and, 99-100, 134 O Obesity, 219, 220 On-the-job training, 329-330 P Pakistan child labor in, 300 demographic trends, 319-321 labor force participation, 303 marriage patterns and trends, 455, 457 school participation and performance, 71, 72, 96, 100, 108, 131, 132, 135 time use patterns, 272 Palestine, 402 Panama, 87 Paraguay, 94, 232-233 Parenthood, 31, 506-571 age patterns and trends, 508-515, 516-519, 548-549, 552-563, 588 arranged marriages, 454-456, 457, 459 contextual influences, 507-508, 515-516, 536 data sources, 507 determinants of child school participation, 100-101 determinants of success in, 506-507 early childbearing in rural and urban areas, 518, 519 economic outcomes, 523-524 educational attainment of young mothers, 518-519 effectiveness of interventions, 550 influence on child outcomes, 56, 507 key findings, 548-549

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries newborn and infant health, 522 policies and programs to promote successful transition to, 545-548 policy recommendations, 549-550 premarital, 507, 525-527, 530-536, 549, 568-571 premature, consequences of, 507, 515, 519-525 reproductive health interventions, 237 research needs, 549, 551, 587, 588 sequencing of first birth, 527-529 social context, 529-530 See also Pregnancy and childbirth Peer influence, 57 peer educator interventions, 57-58, 235 Peru, 468-469 reproductive health interventions, 235 school participation and performance, 92, 137 sexual behaviors, 206, 208 Philippines, 331 age differences between spouses, 447 school participation and performance, 93, 100, 138 sexual behaviors, 197 smoking behaviors, 223 Physical health, 31, 227 challenges for young people, 5-6, 47-48, 170-171 conceptualization of successful transition, 169 contextual factors influencing, 170 economic benefits, 172 effectiveness of programs and policies, 227-228 gender-mediated risk factors, 169 health behaviors, 170-171, 227, 234-235 as indicator of successful transition to adulthood, 3, 26 interaction with other aspects of transition, 47 key findings, 241-245 mental health linkage, 177 normal changes in maturation, 168-169, 194-195 policy and program recommendations, 11, 583-584 regional differences, 170, 179 research recommendations, 248-250 risky behaviors, 171, 219 role in successful transition to adulthood, 168 school attendance as protective factor, 577 school-based interventions, 134 school demand related to overall improvement in, 99-100 trends, 5, 18, 46-47, 170, 171-179, 241-242, 577 vaccination programs, 134 young people’s self-assessment, 177-178 See also HIV/AIDS; Mortality and morbidity; Reproductive health Political context, 39-40 activism among young people, 377-385 civic participation promotion programs, 400 decentralization, 55 education in, 397-398 influence of religion, 50-51 international governance, 52-53, 54-55 knowledge and interest in politics among young people, 370-374, 400-401, 413 organizational membership and participation, 386 party membership, 375-377 role of mass media, 409, 411 trust in institutions, 392-393, 396-397 unemployment, 406 voting behaviors, 374 See also Citizenship Polygyny, 450-453 Poverty associated risks, 10, 579, 582, 586 child labor and, 6, 334, 342 international trade policies and, 12 labor force participation and, 322-324, 343 as obstacle to successful transitions, 4, 579, 596 patterns and trends, 3, 4, 20, 60-63, 324, 579 policy and program recommendations, 9-10, 582-583 regional differences, 20-21, 58, 63, 579 research needs, 586 school participation and, 145, 146, 343 Pregnancy and childbirth access to health services, 544-545, 550 age patterns of first parenthood, 508-515, 516-519, 578, 580 age-related outcomes, 192-193 among working women, 541-543

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries data sources, 28 female genital cutting and, 193 health care trends, 48 health risks in, 5, 11, 48, 191, 544 HIV complications, 175, 543 HIV infection prevalence, 182 morbidity and mortality, 191-194, 242, 578 policy and program recommendations, 247, 550 premarital, 9, 525-527, 530-536, 549, 568-571 research needs, 249, 250 school participation and, 524, 536, 538-541, 545, 550 social significance of, in marriage, 529-530 time to first birth after marriage, 527-529, 566-567 trends and patterns, 8-9, 48, 59 Property rights, 364-365 Puberty, 168-169, 170-171, 194-195 R Rape. See Sexual violence and coercion Regional differences, 19-20 access to mass media, 49, 408-409, 411 age at marriage, 421-426 age differences between spouses, 447-448 age patterns of first parenthood, 508-515, 516-519, 552-563 AIDS/HIV infection, 179-181 AIDS/HIV mortality, 174 Asian economies, 54 convergence trends, 58-62, 579-580 economic growth, 2-3, 580 globalization effects, 1, 20-21, 32-33, 37-38 health, 170, 179 homicides, 190 influence of global culture, 49, 50, 51 legal age for marriage, 469-472 marriage patterns and trends, 417, 486-505 mortality, 173-174, 188-189, 191 premarital childbearing, 525-527, 530-533, 564-566, 568-571 rights and responsibilities of young people, 356-365 school participation and achievement, 4 self-reported life satisfaction, 177-178 sexual coercion, 205-206 sexual initiation, 197-199 smoking behaviors, 221, 252-261 substance use, 225-226 suicide rates, 190 technology access, 39 time to first birth after marriage, 566-567 Religious belief and practice contraceptive use and, 212 educational system and, 71 fundamentalist factions, 50-51 organizational membership and participation, 386, 392, 393-396 political influence, 50-51 sexual behavior and, 200-201 smoking risk and, 223 trends, 50 Reproductive and sexual health programs and policies comprehensive youth development programs, 239-240 evaluation of, 22, 229-230, 245, 249, 581-582 implementation trends, 228-229 individual differences and, 246 media and social marketing programs, 232-234 multicomponent community-based programs, 238-239, 245, 246-247, 577, 582 outcomes, 245 peer promotion interventions, 57-58, 235 programs for parents, 237 recommendations, 11-12, 245-247, 583-584 research needs, 249-250 school-based, 11-12, 230-232, 245-246 workplace-based, 237-238 youth center-based, 236 youth-friendly health services, 234-235 Reproductive health, 31 access to services, 47-48 age of puberty, 194-195 challenges for young people, 5-6 as indicator of successful transition to adulthood, 3, 26 research needs, 585-586

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries See also Condom use; Contraceptives; Pregnancy and childbirth; Reproductive and sexual health programs and policies; Sexual behavior; Sexually-transmitted disease Rural areas access to schools, 107-108 community school program, 131-132 marriage patterns and trends, 425 residential characteristics of young mothers, 518, 519 school attendance patterns, 78-79, 102-103, 124, 156-159 Russia HIV infection risk, 181 homicide rates, 190 smoking patterns, 221 Rwanda, 450 S Scholarships, 128-129 School attendance abortion decision based on, 218 by age, 74 age of entry, 100, 145 child labor and, 297-301 country income level and, 46, 72, 73, 74, 76-78, 143, 152-155 current patterns, 72-74, 148-161 family factors, 98, 325 feeding programs and, 134 gender differences, 4, 46, 72-73, 74, 76-79, 80-81, 82, 98-99, 142-143, 148-161, 580 grade level and, 74 grant and subsidy programs, 4, 124-129, 144, 300-301, 339-341, 343, 581 health and nutrition factors, 99-100, 134 by household wealth, 75-76, 79, 80 household wealth and, 102, 142-143, 145 implications for health, 577 key findings, 142-143 literacy rates and, 90-91 parental schooling and, 100-101 policies and regulations, 122-123 postsecondary, 166-167 pregnancy and, 524, 536, 538-541, 545, 550 recommendations to improve, 144-145 reproductive health and, 10-11, 584 research needs, 586 rural-urban differences, 78-79, 102-103, 156-159 school fees and, 123-124 school quality and, 137, 144 sexual behavior and, 10-11, 201-202, 203, 244-245, 247, 250, 577, 584, 585-586 teacher factors, 135, 138 time use patterns, 270-273 trends, 4, 45, 46, 79-83, 142, 578, 579 See also Educational attainment and performance; Schooling Schooling, 31, 67-176 access to schools, 5, 45-46, 107-109, 130-133, 143 administrative structure and function, 118, 131-132, 146 alternative and nonformal schools, 130-131, 147 citizenship training, 70-71, 397-400, 413 community involvement, 110, 131-132, 146 costs of, 109-111, 123-124 cultural development and, 70 curriculum characteristics, 112, 137-138 data sources, 28, 71-72 demand, 68-69, 96, 99, 122-129 discriminatory practice in, 139-140 double shifting, 132 economic benefits, 45, 46, 143 evaluations of existing programs and policies, 146, 581 expectations of students and families, 96 feeding programs, 134 gender role socialization in, 70, 114-116 globalization and, 38, 46, 89 goals, 46, 68, 398 health interventions in schools, 134, 170, 230-232, 245-246 implications of globalization, 38, 46, 143 key findings, 142-144 language of instruction, 112-113, 137-138, 147 length of school day, 134 military service training, 406 Millennium Development Goals, 89, 144, 583 new school construction, 130 parental influence on outcomes, 56

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries policy and program recommendations, 10, 144-146, 583 political context, 397-398 pressure for reform, 46, 68-69, 106-107, 144 private schools and tutoring, 108-109, 128, 131, 143-144 provider accountability, 146 quality, 5, 111-113, 133-142, 144-145, 203, 247, 250, 587-588 rates of return, 103-106, 507, 578-579 religious training and, 71 research needs, 587-588 research recommendations, 146-147 right to, 398 role in successful transition to adulthood, 10, 46, 67, 68, 145 school performance evaluations, 118-120, 141-142 sex education, 11, 214, 231-232, 245-246 sexual behavior and, 11-12 social development and, 70, 113-116 student-teacher ratios, 110-111, 112, 135-137 systemic reform, 581 teacher absenteeism, 135 teacher compensation, 110 transitions to labor market, 287-291 trends, 4-5, 18, 45, 46, 143-144 vocational education/training, 337-338, 344 voucher programs, 128-129, 140-141 See also Educational attainment and performance; School attendance Self-perception, 414 abortion and, 524 indicators of successful transition to adulthood, 4, 26 life satisfaction, 177-178 research needs, 588 Senegal, 381, 397, 406 age of puberty, 194 age patterns of first parenthood, 514 marriage patterns and trends, 442, 463 reproductive health interventions, 238 school participation and achievement, 95 Sex workers, 204, 238 Sexual behavior arranged marriage and, 454, 459-460 community characteristics and, 391-392 contraceptive knowledge and use, 209-214 data sources, 195, 196, 200, 248 developmental context, 194 economic status and, 204, 245 family influence, 56-57, 58 gender differences, 195, 208 global cultural influence, 49-50, 197 health risks, 194 HIV infection risk, 179, 181-182, 204, 577 initiation, 6, 47, 195-203, 212-213, 243, 530 mental health as risk factor, 177, 243 policy and program recommendations to influence, 11-12, 584 religious orientation and, 200-201 research needs, 248, 249-250 risky behaviors, 203-204 schooling and, 201-202, 203, 244-245, 247, 250, 577, 584, 585-586 trends in, 6, 47, 197-199, 243, 530, 578 urban residence and, 200 violent/coercive, 204-208, 243, 250 See also Condom use; Contraceptives; Reproductive and sexual health programs and policies; Reproductive health; Sexually-transmitted disease Sexual violence and coercion, 204-208, 243, 250 Sexually-transmitted disease prevalence, 181-182 preventive interventions, 231, 236, 237-238 risks for young people, 5-6 See also Condom use; HIV/AIDS Smoking, 219-225 cessation desires, 223 community connectedness and, 391-392 data sources, 219-221 dependence, 219 economic influences, 223 facilitating factors, 219 gender differences, 221-222, 244 initiation, 219 marketing to young people, 48, 170, 240-241 mortality and morbidity, 219, 223 patterns and trends, 252-261 policies and programs to reduce, 241 policy recommendations, 247 prevalence, 219, 221 protective factors, 223, 224 research needs, 250

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries social context factors, 223 tax policy, 241, 247 trends, 6, 223-225, 244 Social relations community engagement, 391-397 employment as obstacle to, 405 gang membership, 387 organizational membership and participation, 385-390, 403 peer influences, 57-58, 399-400 socialization in schools, 399-400 See also Traditional norms and values Somalia, 193 South Africa, 380 age differences between spouses, 447 employment patterns, 310-311 marriage patterns and trends, 425 rates of return to schooling, 105 reproductive health interventions, 231, 232, 233 school participation and performance, 93, 135-136, 140 schoolgirl pregnancy, 540 sexual behaviors, 200, 205 time use patterns, 272 transitions from school to labor market, 288-291 Sports programs, 403 Sri Lanka, 441, 454 Substance use, 48 addiction risk, 226 community connectedness and, 391-392 facilitating factors, 219 HIV infection risk, 179, 181, 244 initiation, 226 regional differences, 225-226 research needs, 249 trends, 6, 179, 244 See also Alcohol abuse Suicide, 175, 190-191, 242, 249 Suriname, 278 Swaziland, 182 T Taiwan, 459 Tanzania abortion practices in, 217 child labor in, 298 reproductive health interventions, 239 school participation and performance, 108, 124, 133 sexual behaviors, 206 Tax policy farm subsidies, 334-335 to improve labor conditions, 343 to reduce smoking, 241, 247 Technology development and diffusion, 38-39, 331-332. See also Information technology Thailand, 57, 189, 399 demographic trends, 319-321 marriage trends and patterns, 455 reproductive health interventions, 236, 237-238 school participation and performance, 92, 93 sexual behaviors, 197 Time use, 270-273 Togo, 236, 450, 456, 514 Trade policy, 54 demand for labor and, 326 to improve labor conditions, 12, 333-334, 343, 584 recommendations for, 584-585 Traditional norms and values conceptualization of success in transition to adulthood and, 25 in determining access to benefits of globalization, 37 gender role socialization, 6, 19, 51, 70, 114-116, 169, 208, 266, 580 globalization and, 1, 33, 49-50, 381 influence of, 50, 51-52 influence of families, 55-57, 58 political attitudes and participation, 381 schools in maintenance of, 113-114 sexual initiation and, 195 See also Religious belief and practice Transition to adulthood challenges for policymakers, 21, 575-576 challenges for young people in, 1, 18, 19, 168, 170-171 changes in adolescence, 168-169 concept of causality in, 28-29 conceptual framework, 22, 27, 28, 30-31, 32-36 conceptualization of success in, 3-4, 22, 24-27, 169, 416 convergence trends, 58-62, 579-580

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries current knowledge base, 21-22, 30 definitions and terminology, 23-24 developmental context, 24-25 evaluation of existing programs and policies to enhance, 22, 30, 581-582, 585, 594-595 globalization and, 1, 17, 32-33, 36-53 group identification and, 586-587 health risks in, 168, 170 interrelationship of developmental domains, 22-23, 585, 595 local community factors, 55-58 national factors, 53-54 phases of, 23 policy and program recommendations, 9-12, 582-585 qualities of effective programs and policies, 4, 9, 582 recommendations for research, 12-13, 589-592 research methodology, 27-30 sociocultural context, 25-26, 169 succession of roles in, 26, 31, 506, 593 trends, 2, 577-581, 595-596 Transportation, 18 educational costs, 111 technological advances, 38-39 Trinidad, 472 Trust, in institutions, 392-393, 396-397, 401, 413 Tunisia, 93, 133 Turkey, 93, 384 U Uganda, 123-124 abortion rate, 216 condom use, 183-187 female genital cutting in, 193 HIV awareness and knowledge, 183 marriage patterns and trends, 450, 464 sexual behaviors, 208 Unemployment, 308-311, 341-342, 405-406 United Nations, 52 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 481, 482 Convention on the Rights of the Child, 19, 23, 52-53, 295, 398, 408, 481, 482 conventions and agreements on rights of young people, 353-355, 364 data collections, 591 international agreements, 52 Millennium Development Goals, 9-10, 20, 89, 144, 327-328, 343, 575, 582, 583 Urbanization, 18 challenges for developing countries, 43-44 contraceptive use and, 212 demand for labor and, 327 national political relationships and, 55 population trends, 43-44 residential characteristics of young mothers, 518, 519 rural migration, 315-317 school attendance and, 78-79, 102-103 sexual behavior and, 200 substance use and, 6 Uruguay, 375, 472 Uzbekistan, 215, 512 V Vaccination programs, 134, 172 Venezuela, 94, 189, 190 Vietnam child labor in, 300 HIV infection risk, 181 labor force participation, 323 school participation and achievement, 102 transitions from school to labor market, 288-291 Violence, 242 attitudes toward government institutions and, 396-397 exposure, 49 mortality, 175, 188, 189-190 sexual, 204-208, 243, 250 Volunteerism, 402 Voting rights, 256 Vouchers, school, 128-129, 140-141 W War, 175, 177, 242, 249 child soldiers, 406-407 mortality, 189

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Growing Up Global: The Changing Transitions to Adulthood in Developing Countries willingness of young people to serve in military, 375 See also Military service Women’s issues causes for delay in marriage, 427-441 citizenship participation, 351, 405, 414 consanguineous marriage, 461 economic status, 266-267, 342 female household headship, 324-325 genital cutting, 193-194, 482-483 motivation to work, 302, 305-307 parenting responsibilities, 507 policy and program recommendations to improve equality, 11, 583 smoking promotion, 240-241 UN conventions and agreements, 354-355 workplace discrimination, 330 See also Gender differences; Pregnancy and childbirth Work, 31, 265-345 challenges for young people, 7, 579 challenges to effective intervention, 332 child dependency ratios and, 41 childbearing patterns among working women, 541-543 citizenship and, 404-406 classifications of, 269-270 data sources, 28, 268, 269, 273, 279-287 demand for labor, 322, 325-332 determinants of, 318-319 development assistance and, 343 discrimination in, 330-331 educational attainment and, 6-7, 45, 46, 68, 103, 105, 266-267, 329, 341, 342 family size and, 324-325 gender differences, 6, 266-268, 270-279, 310 globalization effects, 38, 265-266, 587 government regulation and, 12, 584 household work participation, 270-273, 580 informal labor markets, 328, 329 international policies affecting, 332-335, 343 job registries, 338-339 key findings, 341-342 marriage behaviors and, 437-442 migration for, 311-317 military service as, 337 military service training, 406 minimum wage laws, 335 national economic factors, 325-327 national standards and regulations, 335-336, 343, 356 on-the-job training, 329-330 opportunities for decent and productive work, 327-330 patterns and trends, 7, 18, 270-279, 302-308, 341, 579, 580 policy and program recommendations, 12, 342-344, 584-585 population growth and, 44-45, 341-342 promoting youth employment, policies and programs for, 336-339 in public works projects, 339 requirements for successful transition, 265, 268 research needs, 587 research recommendations, 268, 344-345 self-employment, 339 supply of labor, 318, 319-325, 341-342 technological advancement and, 39, 331-332 time use patterns, 270-273 transitions from school to, 287-291 unemployment, 308-311, 341-342, 405-406 urbanization trends and, 43-44 vocational education/training, 337-338, 344 workplace-based health promotion, 237-238 See also Child labor; Labor force participation World Health Organization, 23 Y Yemen, 472 Young people, defined, 23 Z Zambia, 232, 233-234, 375-377, 400 Zimbabwe, 100, 201, 231, 234