Carslaw, K. S., R. G. Harrison, and J. Kirkby. 2002. Cosmic rays, clouds, and climate. Science 29:1732-1737.

Carton, J. A., G. Chepurin, X. Cao, and B. Giese. 2000. A simple ocean data assimilation analysis of the global upper ocean 1950-95. Part I. Methodology. Journal of Physical Oceanography 30:294-309.

Catling, D. C., K. J. Zahnle, and C. P. McKay. 2001. Biogenic methane, hydrogen escape, and the irreversible oxidation of early Earth. Science 293:839-843.

CDIAC (Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center). 2004. Oak Ridge National Laboratories, Oak Ridge, Tenn., Available at:

Cess, R. D. 1972. The thermal structure within the stratospheres of Venus and Mars. Icarus 17(2):561-569.

Cess, R. D. 1976. Climate change: An appraisal of atmospheric feedback mechanisms employing zonal climatology. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 33(10):1831-1843.

Cess, R. D., and G. L. Potter. 1988. A methodology for understanding and intercomparing atmospheric climate feedback processes in GCMs. Journal of Geophysical Research 93: 8305-8314.

Chamberlain, J. W. 1960. Interplanetary gas. II: Expansion of a model solar corona. Astrophysics Journal 131(47).

Chameides W. L., H. Hu, S. C. Liu, M. Bergin, X. Zhou, L. Mearns, G. Wang, C. S. Kiang, R. D. Saylor, C. Luo, Y. Huang, A. Steiner, and F. Giorgi. 1999. Case study of the effects of atmospheric aerosols and regional haze on agriculture: An opportunity to enhance crop yields in China through emission controls? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 26:13626-13633.

Chandrasekhar, S. 1947. The transfer of radiation in stellar atmospheres. Josiah Willard Gibbs Lecture. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society 53:641.

Charlock, T. P., and V. Ramanathan. 1985. The albedo field and cloud radiative forcing produced by a general circulation model with internally generated cloud optics. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 42:1405-1429.

Charlson, R. J., J. Langner, H. Rodhe, C. B. Leovy, and S. G. Warren. 1991. Perturbation of the Northern Hemisphere radiative balance by backscattering from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols. Tellus 43AB(4):152-163.

Chase, T. N., R. A. Pielke Sr., T. G. F. Kittel, R. R. Nemani, and S. W. Running. 2000a. Simulated impacts of historical land cover changes on global climate in northern winter. Climate Dynamics 16:93-105.

Chase, T. N., R. A. Pielke Sr., J. A. Knaff, T. G. F. Kittel, and J. L. Eastman. 2000b. A comparison of regional trends in 1979-1997 depth-averaged tropospheric temperatures. International Journal of Climatology 20:503-518.

Chase, T. N., R. A. Pielke, Sr., B. Herman, and X. Zeng. 2004. Likelihood of rapidly increasing surface temperatures unaccompanied by strong warming in the free troposphere. Climate Research 25:185-190.

Chen, C-T., and V. Ramaswamy. 1996. Sensitivity of simulated global climate to perturbations in low cloud microphysical properties. Part II: Spatially localized perturbations. Journal of Climate 9:2788-2801.

Chertow, M. 2001. The IPAT equation and its variants: Changing views of technology and environmental impact. Journal of Industrial Ecology 4(4).

Christy J. R., and W. B. Norris. 2004. What may we conclude about tropospheric temperature trends? Geophysical Research Letters 31(6):L0621.

Chung, C. E., and V. Ramanathan. 2003. South Asian haze forcing: Remote impacts with implications to ENSO and AO. Journal of Climate 16:1791-1806.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement