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Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: Expanding the Concept and Addressing Uncertainties A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members and Staff COMMITTEE MEMBERS Dr. Daniel J. Jacob is the Gordon McKay Professor of Atmospheric Chemistry and Environmental Engineering at Harvard University. His research focuses on understanding the composition of the atmosphere, its perturbation by human activity, and the implications for human welfare and climate. Dr. Jacob serves on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Systems Science and Applications Advisory Committee (ESSAAC) and has been lead or co-lead scientist on several NASA aircraft missions. He is also the lead scientist for the GEOS-CHEM chemical transport model used by a large number of research groups in North America and Europe. He is the recipient of the NASA Distinguished Public Service Medal (2003) and the American Geophysical Union (AGU) James B. Macelwane Medal (1994). Dr. Jacob earned his Ph.D. in environmental engineering at the California Institute of Technology. He has previously served on the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Earth Sciences and the Committee for the Study on Transportation and a Sustainable Environment. Dr. Roni Avissar is the W. H. Gardner Professor and chair of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Duke University. He received his Ph.D. in 1987 from the Hebrew University, where he studied soil and water sciences and atmospheric sciences. His research focuses on the study of land-atmosphere interactions from micro to global scales, including the development and use of a variety of atmospheric, land, and oceanic
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Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: Expanding the Concept and Addressing Uncertainties models. Before joining Duke in 2001, he was at Rutgers University, where he started his academic career in 1989. Dr. Avissar served as editor of the Journal of Geophysical Research—Climate and Physics of the Atmosphere. Dr. Avissar has served on various national and international panels and committees including the NRC’s Committee on Hydrologic Science. He currently serves as the project scientist for the hydrometeorology component of the Large-scale Biosphere Atmosphere (LBA) Experiment in the Amazon and is the chairman of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) Global Water Cycle Science Steering Group. Dr. Gerard C. Bond is a Doherty senior scholar at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, New York. Since 1980 he has been working on the history of the Earth’s climate, mainly from the present through the previous interglaciation. His research interests have included the origin of Heinrich events, Dansgaard/Oeschger cycles, and the persistent 1500-year climate cycle. He is currently working on abrupt climate change within interglacial climates—particularly our present interglacial, or Holocene—and on how the Sun impacts the Earth’s climate system. Dr. Bond is a fellow of the Geological Society of America and the recipient of the 2003 Maurice Ewing Medal. Dr. Bond received his Ph.D. in geology with minors in marine geology and geochemistry from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Dr. Stuart Gaffin is an associate research scientist at Columbia University’s Center for Climate Systems Research. Previously, he was a senior scientist for the Global and Regional Atmospheric Program at Environmental Defense (formerly EDF). Dr. Gaffin’s research focuses on emissions scenarios for greenhouse gases over the next century. He served as a lead author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. He was a consulting scientist with the World Commission on Dams and focused on quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from flooded vegetation in dam reservoirs in the tropics of Brazil. Currently, Dr. Gaffin is specializing in the nexus between climate change, population and development, and environmental sustainability. Dr. Gaffin received his Ph.D. in climatology and geophysics from New York University’s Earth Systems Group. Dr. Jeffrey T. Kiehl is a senior scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research’s (NCAR’s) Climate Change and Research Section. This section applies the Community Climate System Model (CCSM) to past, present, and future climate change. Dr. Kiehl has carried out research on the effects of ozone depletion on Earth’s climate, the role of clouds in the climate system, and the role of aerosol particles in the climate system. For
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Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: Expanding the Concept and Addressing Uncertainties the past two years, Dr. Kiehl has been chairman of the Scientific Steering Committee for the CCSM and led the development of the CCSM modeling effort. He also led a CCSM effort to simulate the climate of the twentieth century, including the effects of greenhouse gases. He was a contributing author to the chapters on aerosols and radiative forcings in the IPCC Third Assessment Report. He has served on the Climate Research Committee of the National Research Council, as editor for the Journal of Geophysical Research, and as a member of the Board of Reviewing Editors for Science magazine. He has also served on the Science Steering Committee for the U.S. Climate Variability (CLIVAR) board of the National Research Council. Dr. Kiehl received his Ph.D. in atmospheric science from the State University of New York at Albany. Dr. Judith L. Lean is a research physicist at the Naval Research Laboratory. She received her Ph.D. in atmospheric physics from the University of Adelaide, Australia. She specializes in the study of the variability of solar radiation and its impact on Earth’s climate and space weather. The focus of her current research is the mechanisms, models, and measurements of variation in the Sun’s radiative output. Dr. Lean served as the chair of a group of scientists who assisted the National Research Council Board on Global Change to prepare the 1994 report Solar Influences on Global Change. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and has also served on the NRC’s Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Committee for a Review of Scientific Aspects of the NASA Triana Mission, and the Task Group on Ground-Based Solar Research. Dr. Ulrike Lohmann is a full professor and leads the Atmospheric Physics group at ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Until recently Dr. Lohmann was an associate Professor, Canada Research Chair and Coordinator of the Atmospheric Science Program in the Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science at Dalhousie University. Her research activities concentrate on the role of clouds and aerosols in the climate system. Dr. Lohmann is a member of the scientific advisory committee for SOLAS (Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study) Canada, a member of the scientific steering committee of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project and a member of the International Commission of Clouds and Precipitation (ICCP). She was a contributing author for multiple chapters of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report. Dr. Lohmann received her Ph.D. in Meteorology from the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology/Hamburg University, Germany. Dr. Michael E. Mann is an assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia. Dr. Mann earned his
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Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: Expanding the Concept and Addressing Uncertainties Ph.D. from the Department of Geology and Geophysics at Yale University. Dr. Mann’s research focuses on the application of statistical techniques to understanding climate variability and climate change from both empirical and climate model-based perspectives. A specific area of current research is paleoclimate data synthesis and statistically based climate pattern reconstruction during past centuries using climate “proxy” data networks. A primary focus of this research is deducing empirically the long-term behavior of the climate system and its relationship with possible external (including anthropogenic) “forcings” of climate. Dr. Mann was a lead author on the “Observed Climate Variability and Change” chapter of the IPCC Third Assessment Report. He was an invited participant in the 2002 National Research Council workshop Estimating Climate Sensitivity and is the current organizing committee chair for the National Academy of Sciences Frontiers of Science symposium. He currently serves as an editor of the Journal of Climate, and is a participant in numerous other scientific committees and working groups. Dr. Roger A. Pielke Sr., is a professor in the Department of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University. He is also state climatologist for Colorado and was president of the American Association of State Climatologists from 2002 to 2003. His research areas include the study of global, regional, and local weather and climate phenomena through the use of sophisticated mathematical simulation models and observational datasets. He has published widely on the role that land-use change and vegetation dynamics may play as a driver of observed changes in climate. He has served as chairman and member of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Committee on Weather Forecasting and Analysis, and was chief editor for the Monthly Weather Review from 1981 to 1985 and co-chief editor of the Journal of Atmospheric Science from 1995 to 2000. He was elected a fellow of the AMS in 1982. Dr. Pielke previously served on the NRC’s Committee on Carbon Monoxide Episodes in Meteorological and Topographical Problem Areas and Panel on Coastal Meteorology. Dr. Pielke received a Ph.D. in meteorology from Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Veerabhadran Ramanathan is a professor and director at the Center for Atmospheric Sciences and the Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate at the University of California, San Diego’s Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Through his research, Dr. Ramanathan has identified chlorofluorocarbons, stratospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols as significant factors in anthropogenic climate change. As principal investigator for the NASA Radiation Budget Experiment, he demonstrated that clouds had a global radiative cooling effect. He was the co-chief scientist for the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), which led to the discovery of widespread
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Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: Expanding the Concept and Addressing Uncertainties atmospheric brown clouds over the Indian Ocean and South Asia. Dr. Ramanathan was inducted into the National Academy of Sciences in 2002 and is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union, the American Meteorological Society, and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He earned his Ph.D. in planetary atmospheres from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He has previously served on the NRC Board on Global Change and Climate Research Committee. Dr. Lynn M. Russell is an associate professor in the Center for Atmospheric Sciences, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego. Her research is in the area of aerosol particle chemistry, including the behavior of particles under pristine and anthropogenically influenced conditions. Her research interests span experimental and modeling approaches to aerosol evolution in the atmosphere, incorporating chemical and physical mechanisms in aerosol-cloud interactions, organic aerosols, and their radiative effects. She has served on several NRC committees, including the Panel on Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Climate Change, the Committee to Review NARSTO’s Scientific Assessment of Airborne Particulate Matter, and the Panel on Atmospheric Effects of Aviation. She holds a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the California Institute of Technology. NRC STAFF Dr. Amanda C. Staudt is a senior program officer with the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of the National Academies. She received an A.B. in environmental engineering and sciences and a Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from Harvard University. Her doctorate research involved developing a global three-dimensional chemical transport model to investigate how long-range transport of continental pollutants affects the chemical composition of the remote tropical Pacific troposphere. Since joining the National Academies in 2001, Dr. Staudt has staffed the National Academies review of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program Strategic Plan and the long-standing Climate Research Committee. Dr. Staudt has also worked on studies addressing air quality management in the United States, research priorities for airborne particulate matter, the NARSTO Assessment of the Atmospheric Science on Particulate Matter, weather research for surface transportation, and weather forecasting for aviation traffic flow management. Dr. Parikhit Sinha is a program officer with the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of the National Academies. He received an A.B. in environmental engineering and sciences from Harvard University and a
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Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: Expanding the Concept and Addressing Uncertainties Ph.D. in atmospheric sciences from the University of Washington, Seattle. His doctorate research involved airborne measurements and chemical transport modeling of trace gas and particle emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa. Since joining the National Academies in 2004, Dr. Sinha has worked on studies addressing climate change indicators, estimating and communicating uncertainty in weather forecasts, and climate variability and change in Asia. Ms. Elizabeth A. Galinis is a senior program assistant for the Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. She received her B.S. in marine science from the University of South Carolina in 2001. Since her start at the National Academies in March 2002, she has worked on studies involving next-generation weather radar (NEXRAD), weather modification, climate sensitivity, and climate change. Ms. Galinis is pursuing a master’s degree in environmental science and policy at Johns Hopkins University.
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