the past two years, Dr. Kiehl has been chairman of the Scientific Steering Committee for the CCSM and led the development of the CCSM modeling effort. He also led a CCSM effort to simulate the climate of the twentieth century, including the effects of greenhouse gases. He was a contributing author to the chapters on aerosols and radiative forcings in the IPCC Third Assessment Report. He has served on the Climate Research Committee of the National Research Council, as editor for the Journal of Geophysical Research, and as a member of the Board of Reviewing Editors for Science magazine. He has also served on the Science Steering Committee for the U.S. Climate Variability (CLIVAR) board of the National Research Council. Dr. Kiehl received his Ph.D. in atmospheric science from the State University of New York at Albany.

Dr. Judith L. Lean is a research physicist at the Naval Research Laboratory. She received her Ph.D. in atmospheric physics from the University of Adelaide, Australia. She specializes in the study of the variability of solar radiation and its impact on Earth’s climate and space weather. The focus of her current research is the mechanisms, models, and measurements of variation in the Sun’s radiative output. Dr. Lean served as the chair of a group of scientists who assisted the National Research Council Board on Global Change to prepare the 1994 report Solar Influences on Global Change. She is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and has also served on the NRC’s Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Committee for a Review of Scientific Aspects of the NASA Triana Mission, and the Task Group on Ground-Based Solar Research.

Dr. Ulrike Lohmann is a full professor and leads the Atmospheric Physics group at ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Until recently Dr. Lohmann was an associate Professor, Canada Research Chair and Coordinator of the Atmospheric Science Program in the Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science at Dalhousie University. Her research activities concentrate on the role of clouds and aerosols in the climate system. Dr. Lohmann is a member of the scientific advisory committee for SOLAS (Surface Ocean Lower Atmosphere Study) Canada, a member of the scientific steering committee of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) project and a member of the International Commission of Clouds and Precipitation (ICCP). She was a contributing author for multiple chapters of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report. Dr. Lohmann received her Ph.D. in Meteorology from the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology/Hamburg University, Germany.

Dr. Michael E. Mann is an assistant professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia. Dr. Mann earned his



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