Ph.D. from the Department of Geology and Geophysics at Yale University. Dr. Mann’s research focuses on the application of statistical techniques to understanding climate variability and climate change from both empirical and climate model-based perspectives. A specific area of current research is paleoclimate data synthesis and statistically based climate pattern reconstruction during past centuries using climate “proxy” data networks. A primary focus of this research is deducing empirically the long-term behavior of the climate system and its relationship with possible external (including anthropogenic) “forcings” of climate. Dr. Mann was a lead author on the “Observed Climate Variability and Change” chapter of the IPCC Third Assessment Report. He was an invited participant in the 2002 National Research Council workshop Estimating Climate Sensitivity and is the current organizing committee chair for the National Academy of Sciences Frontiers of Science symposium. He currently serves as an editor of the Journal of Climate, and is a participant in numerous other scientific committees and working groups.

Dr. Roger A. Pielke Sr., is a professor in the Department of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University. He is also state climatologist for Colorado and was president of the American Association of State Climatologists from 2002 to 2003. His research areas include the study of global, regional, and local weather and climate phenomena through the use of sophisticated mathematical simulation models and observational datasets. He has published widely on the role that land-use change and vegetation dynamics may play as a driver of observed changes in climate. He has served as chairman and member of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Committee on Weather Forecasting and Analysis, and was chief editor for the Monthly Weather Review from 1981 to 1985 and co-chief editor of the Journal of Atmospheric Science from 1995 to 2000. He was elected a fellow of the AMS in 1982. Dr. Pielke previously served on the NRC’s Committee on Carbon Monoxide Episodes in Meteorological and Topographical Problem Areas and Panel on Coastal Meteorology. Dr. Pielke received a Ph.D. in meteorology from Pennsylvania State University.

Dr. Veerabhadran Ramanathan is a professor and director at the Center for Atmospheric Sciences and the Center for Clouds, Chemistry and Climate at the University of California, San Diego’s Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Through his research, Dr. Ramanathan has identified chlorofluorocarbons, stratospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols as significant factors in anthropogenic climate change. As principal investigator for the NASA Radiation Budget Experiment, he demonstrated that clouds had a global radiative cooling effect. He was the co-chief scientist for the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX), which led to the discovery of widespread



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