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Radiative Forcing of Climate Change: Expanding the Concept and Addressing Uncertainties
Climate System Model
Chemical transport model
Climate forcing that directly effects the radiative budget of the Earth’s climate system. For example, this perturbation may be due to a change in concentration of the radiatively active gases, a change in solar radiation reaching the Earth, or changes in surface albedo. Radiative forcing is reported in the climate change scientific literature as a change in energy flux at the tropopause, calculated in units of watts per square meter (W m−2); model calculations typically report values in which the stratosphere was allowed to adjust thermally to the forcing under an assumption of fixed stratospheric dynamics.
Deep Space Climate Observatory
Dust veil index
Energy Balance Model
GCM based on European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting forecast models, modified and extended in Hamburg
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research
The ratio of the climate sensitivity parameter λ for a given forcing agent to λ for a doubling of CO2 . The efficacy E is then used to define an effective forcing Fe = f E.
El Niño/Southern Oscillation
Earth Observing System
Earth Radiation Budget Experiment
Earth Radiation Budget Satellite
The combined processes, including physical evaporation and transpiration, through which water is transferred to the atmosphere from open water and ice surfaces, bare soil, and vegetation that make up the Earth’s surface. Over bare soils or the ocean, only physical evaporation occurs.