CSM

Climate System Model

CTM

Chemical transport model


Direct forcing

Climate forcing that directly effects the radiative budget of the Earth’s climate system. For example, this perturbation may be due to a change in concentration of the radiatively active gases, a change in solar radiation reaching the Earth, or changes in surface albedo. Radiative forcing is reported in the climate change scientific literature as a change in energy flux at the tropopause, calculated in units of watts per square meter (W m−2); model calculations typically report values in which the stratosphere was allowed to adjust thermally to the forcing under an assumption of fixed stratospheric dynamics.

DSCOVR

Deep Space Climate Observatory

DVI

Dust veil index


EBM

Energy Balance Model

ECHAM

GCM based on European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting forecast models, modified and extended in Hamburg

ECMWF

European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

EDGAR

Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research

Efficacy

The ratio of the climate sensitivity parameter λ for a given forcing agent to λ for a doubling of CO2. The efficacy E is then used to define an effective forcing Fe = f E.

ENSO

El Niño/Southern Oscillation

EOS

Earth Observing System

ERBE

Earth Radiation Budget Experiment

ERBS

Earth Radiation Budget Satellite

Evapotranspiration

The combined processes, including physical evaporation and transpiration, through which water is transferred to the atmosphere from open water and ice surfaces, bare soil, and vegetation that make up the Earth’s surface. Over bare soils or the ocean, only physical evaporation occurs.


FN

Freezing nuclei


GCM

General circulation model

GCR

Galactic cosmic rays

GDP

Gross domestic product



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