Five reproductive outcomes (livebirth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy, and induced abortion) were analyzed among female veterans during or after the Gulf War compared to nondeployed female veterans (Araneta et al. 2004). A postal survey was sent to every woman identified by the Department of Defense as having a pregnancy-related admission to a military hospital from August 2, 1990 to May 31, 1992. The responses were validated with medical records; it was observed that female veterans with post-Gulf War conceptions (n=292) were at increased risk for spontaneous abortion (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.9–4.6) and ectopic pregnancy (OR 7.70, 95% CI 3.0–19.8) compared with nondeployed female veterans (n=427). No difference was found between pregnancies of Gulf War-deployed women and those of non-Gulf War-deployed women.

FUELS AND REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOMES

In reviewing the literature on paternal and maternal exposure to fuels, the committee found several studies on adverse reproductive outcomes, including infertility, spontaneous abortion, childhood leukemia, neuroblastoma, and Prader-Willi syndrome—which may result from genetic alterations in either sperm or egg. The studies related to each of those outcomes are discussed below (Table 7.1).

TABLE 7.1 Selected Epidemiologic Studies—Reproductive Outcomes and Exposure to Fuel

Reference

Population

Exposed Cases

Estimated Relative Risk

Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia

Case-Control Study

Buckley et al. 1989

Paternal exposure to petroleum products

 

 

 

None

93

1.0

1–1,000 days duration

32

1.4 (0.8–2.5)

> 1,000 days duration

53

2.4 (1.3–4.1)

Before conception

NA

2.0 (p<0.05)

During gestation

NA

2.8 (p<0.05)

Leukemia

Case-Control study

Shu et al. 1988

Maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy

 

 

 

Gasoline

38

1.6 (0.8–3.1)

Diesel oil

16

1.4 (0.6–3.3)

Kerosene

16

1.4 (0.6–3.1)

Maternal occupational exposure during pregnancy by histopathologic cell type

 

 

Gasoline

 

 

ANLL

13

2.1 (1.1–4.3)

ALL

21

1.7 (1.0–3.0)

Kerosene

 

 

ANLL

6

2.3 (0.9–6.3)

ALL

9

1.5 (0.6–3.4)



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