Limited/Suggestive Evidence of an Association

Evidence is suggestive of an association between exposure to a specific agent and a specific health outcome, but the body of evidence is limited by the inability to rule out chance and bias, including confounding, with confidence. For example, at least one high-quality study reports a positive association that is sufficiently free of bias, including adequate control for confounding. Other corroborating studies provide support for the association, but they were not sufficiently free of bias, including confounding. Alternatively, several studies of lower quality show consistent positive associations, and the results are probably not due to bias, including confounding.

Cancers

  • Tetrachloroethylene and dry-cleaning solvents and

    • bladder cancer

    • kidney cancer

    • organophosphorus insecticides and

    • non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    • adult leukemia

    • adult leukemia

  • Solvents and

    • adult leukemia

    • myelodysplastic syndromes

    • bladder cancer

    • multiple myeloma

  • Carbamates and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

  • Benzene and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Neurologic Effects

  • organophosphorus insecticide exposure with OP poisoning and long-term neurobehavioral effects (that is, abnormal results on neurobehavioral test batteries and symptom findings)

  • Solvents and neurobehavioral effects (that is, abnormal results on neurobehavioral test batteries and symptom findings)

Other Health Effects

  • Solvents and

    • hepatic steatosis

    • chronic glomerulonephritis

    • reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) which would be evident with exposure and could persist for months or years

  • Insecticides and allergic contact dermatitis

  • Sarin at doses sufficient to cause acute cholinergic signs and symptoms and subsequent long-term health effects



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