Study Group

Health-Outcome Assessment

Exposure Assessment

Analysis, Adjustment for Potential Confounders

Zeegers et al. 2001

Nested cases of bladder cancer among a cohort of men, 55–69 yr old, in Netherlands in 1986–1992; random subcohort selected as controls

532 cases

Record linkage to cancer registries, Dutch national database of pathology reports

Self-administered questionnaire at baseline assessed job histories, exposure to confounders; occupational epidemiologists and industrial hygienists assigned probability of exposure to PAHs, diesel exhaust

Rate ratios, failure-time regression model; cigarette-smoking, age, dietary factors, family history

NOTE: ACS=American Cancer Society; BMI=body-mass index; EPA=Environmental Protection Agency; HC=hydrocarbon; HCFA=Health Care Financing Administration; JEM=job exposure matrix; NDI=National Death Index; OR=odds ratio; PM=particulate matter; RBB=Railroad Retirement Board; RR=relative risk; SES=socioeconomic status; SIR=standardized incidence ratio; SMR=standardized mortality ratio; SSA=Social Security Administration.

TABLE D.2 Description of Case-Control Studies Related to Exposure to Fuels and Combustion Products



Number of Cases

Number of Controls

Relevant Exposures

Exposure Assessment

Analysis; Adjustment for Potential Confounders

Ahrens et al. 1991

Male laryngeal-cancer cases identified in one hospital in Bremen, Germany, in 1986 with histologic confirmation; nonneoplastic male controls selected from same hospital and matched on age and residence

85 laryngeal


Transport and communication, diesel oil, gasoline

In-person interview with standardized questionnaire covering lifetime occupational history with exposure checklist

Unconditional logistic regression; smoking, alcohol consumption, age

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