specificity of association, 4, 23–24

strength of evidence of an association, 4, 22–23

temporal relationship, 4, 23

Asthma, 240, 242

categories used to evaluate indoor pollutants related to, 25

conclusions about, 264–266

from exposure to fuels, 242, 244

key studies of, 265–266

“physician-diagnosed,” 246

ATS. See American Thoracic Society

ATSDR. See Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry

Australia, studies from cited, 241, 243, 255, 257, 260, 320

B

Benzene, 6, 29, 102, 133

Bias, 24–25

in assessing the strength of the evidence, 24–25

confounding, 25

information bias, 24–25

reducing, 6, 22

selection bias, 24

Bioassays, chronic, 47

Biologic plausibility, in assessing the strength of the evidence, 3, 16, 24

Biological monitoring data, 26n

Biomass-fuel combustion, 261–262

population-based studies of, 261–262

Biomass studies, 262–264

Birth defects, 310–311

conclusions about, 311

in Gulf War Veterans, 288–290

Bladder cancer, 111–119

conclusions about, 118–119

and exposure to combustion products, 114–118

additional studies on cancers of the renal pelvis, 118

case-control studies, 115–118

cohort studies, 114–115

selected epidemiologic studies, 200–206

and exposure to fuels, 111–114

case-control studies, 111–114

selected epidemiologic studies, 198–200

Blinding, 406

Bolivia, studies from cited, 262, 268

Bosnia veterans, 257–258



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