were taught by CAM practitioners or by those who prescribe CAM therapies.

Burman (2003), in a survey of family nurse practitioner program directors, found that 98.5 percent of the 141 respondents reported that their programs included CAM-related content and that most of these (80.3 percent) integrated the CAM content into existing courses. A survey of 627 medical school, school of nursing, and college of pharmacy faculty and students at the University of Minnesota found that 88 percent of the faculty respondents and 84 percent of the students believed that CAM should be included in their schools’ curricula (Kreitzer et al., 2002). Biofeedback, massage, and meditation were the therapies most likely to be used by the faculty from all schools.

A study of schools of pharmacy conducted by Dutta et al. (2003) found that 73 percent (46 out of 64 respondents) of schools were offering instruction in CAM, although courses on CAM were not yet mandated by the schools. The most frequently taught content area was herbals (45 schools). Table 8-1 shows the number of schools teaching various modalities. The National Association of Boards of Pharmacy, in a memorandum to all pharmacy school deans, stated that herbal products and nutraceuticals would be included in the North American Pharmacist Licensure Examination (NAPLEX).

TABLE 8-1 CAM Modalities Taught at U.S. Schools of Pharmacy (n = 46)

No. of Schools

Content Area (Percent)


45 (97.8)


33 (71.7)

Chinese herbal medicine

27 (57.8)


26 (56.5)


25 (54.3)

Ayurvedic medicine

18 (39.1)


16 (34.8)

Massage therapy

16 (34.8)


11 (23.9)

Relaxation techniques

12 (26.1)

Spiritual healing

11 (23.9)


10 (21.7)

Therapeutic touch

8 (17.4)

SOURCE: Dutta et al. (2003).

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement