• Literature analysis and persuasion

• Effects of social science research on social issues, such as crime prevention and labor market policies in the United States compared with Europe were examined

• Decision makers were at the federal level

• Conclusions: The study found that social research increased the knowledge of policy makers in two ways: (1) It helped identify issues that were open to alternatives and possible to change and (2) it brought new options and a greater range of alternatives to light.

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