science that examines more broadly the role of science and scientists in a variety of decision and policy processes (e.g., Brunner and Ascher, 1992; Gunderson, Holling, and Light, 1995; Sarewitz, Pielke, and Byerly, 2000; van Asselt, 2000; Freudenburg and Gramling, 2002; Ascher, 2004). Although this tradition contains useful insights regarding how science is used and misused in policy processes, we did not find it useful for judging which research areas are most likely to produce knowledge that will be used.

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